language and power

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instrumental power
There is an inequality in society. In all kinds of relationships we can see that one person has more power. (employer/employee). In this context we look at how the inequality of power affects the power difference.
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influential power
-persuasive. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in a certain way or adopt attitudes or options.
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synonymous parallelism
Adding something extra/repeating the same idea in a different wording.
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Antithetical parallelism
Adding an opposite thought
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Rewording and twisting words
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Used to persuade people to take something for granted,which is actually up for debate/forces the audience to agree with the politician
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The tone of language used by the powerful to convert their attitudes.
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Fowler -Encourged linguists to looks at the use of
Model verbs (can,could,should) Semi-modal (had to,ought to) and Adverbs (clearly,possibly )
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Deontic modal verbs
Obligation e.g must
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Epistemic modal verbs
Discretion e.g 'should' 'could'
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Pronouns-we,i,you,she etc
The use of pronouns allows the powerful participant to decide on the their relationship to the listener.
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Flower - pronouns,adverbs ,semi modal and modal verbs,epistemic and deontic modality. Conclusion
Flower does not believe that these features of language are used consciously;he suggested that they are used automatically and accepted without challenge because its encoded into language.
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Fairclough -Stimulated egalatariasm
Fairclough claimed that through language we are being conned into believing that we are all equal.
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Brown and levison - Suggested the level of politeness required is affected by 3 variables
Social distance - more polite to strangers. Power distance - if someone more powerful speaking to you then you would need to be more polite. Degree of imposition -more polite depending on what you want.
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Robin lakoff - The politeness principle
Argued that conversational interactions are usually governed by politeness principle. Make the receiver feel good. Don't impose (don't force) and Giving options.
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Goffman - 'Face work'
The purpose of face work is to maintain status (power) either within the conversation or within society. Lower status -more attentive to face needs and versa vera
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Irving Goffman FACE
Suggested that we present a particular image of ourselves to others. e.g A good student in one context and a knowledgeable student in another "image-face"
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Face threatening act
If you say something which challenges or rejects someones 'face'
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Words frequently found together usually with a conjunction. 'on and off' 'win or lose ' 'safe and sound' Usually just for emphasis and are well known terms
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Child directed speech
The language pattern used by adults, care givers when speaking to children.
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The way in which information is put across can affect how powerful and powerless are received.
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Active and passive voice
Active -describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb. Passive- the subject is acted upon.
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Occurs when verbs are turned into nouns. ' to suggest' becomes a suggestion
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Grices maxims
Quantity - don't say to much or to little. Quality- be truthful. Relevance - keep to the point. Manner-speak in a clear and orderly way.
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Faircloughs model - synthetic personalisation,creating a text and building the receiver
Synthetic personalisation- The construction of a relationship between producer and receiver. Creating a text- visual and verbal uses to evoke knowledge,behaviour and life style forms. Building the receiver-poisitioning the reader as the ideal reader
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D.Ogilvy- Has identified a basic lexicon in advertising
Qualifiers: new improved unique,good,crisp,better,fresh,natural,fine. Verbs: buy,give,taste,go,look,feel,use,try.
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related vocabulary
Phatic talk- small/chatty talk. Interactional talk-conversational Transactional talk-wanting to get something. Performative talk - does something practical in talk e.g 'i do' i a wedding ceremony
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influential power


-persuasive. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in a certain way or adopt attitudes or options.

Card 3


synonymous parallelism


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Card 4


Antithetical parallelism


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