Language and Occupation

What was Normal Fairclough's theory?
Symmetrical and Asymmetrical relationships
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Power behind discourse
Power in the form of status or reputation which permits the speaker power in how they use language
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Power in discourse
Power generated by the effective use of language
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Synthetic personalisation
Media texts adopt informal, intimate registers to make themselves feel artificially personal
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What does Fairclough's theory show?
Shows that many interactions are 'unequal encounters' and that language choice is created and constrained by certain 'social power' situations
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What was John Swales' theory?
Discourse community. Groups that have goals or purposes and use communication to achieve these goals.
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What does a discourse community have?
Agreed set of common public goals. Systems for communication among it's members. Acquired some specific lexis. Levels of knowledge.
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What was Koester's theory?
Exchanges at work are not just there to get the job done, but to maintain relationships. Sees office 'small talk' as a crucial part of occupational language.
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Interactional language
Used to create and maintain relationships. May involve switch in register. Vital in building 'sustained mutual relationships'.
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Transactional language
Used to achieve a purpose
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What was Drew and Heritage's theory?
Goal orientation and allowable contributions. Features that define occupational language.
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Goal orientation
Participants in workplace conversations usually focus on specific tasks
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Turn-taking rules
When no specific rules exist, there may be unwritten restrictions on who speaks when
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Allowable contributions
There may be restrictions on what kind of contributions are considered 'allowable'
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Professional lexis
The professional/workplace context may be reflected in the lexical choice
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Structure
Workplace and professional interactions may be structured in specific ways
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Asymmetry
Workplace and professional interactions are often asymmetrical
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What was Waering's theory?
Instrumental and influential power
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Political power
Power in the law e.g. police
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Personal power
Occupation/power within a job e.g. doctor
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Social group power
Power in a social group e.g. gender, class
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Instrumental power
Power which is manifested/exercised through formal mechanisms e.g. judge
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Influential power
Power which is used to persuade others e.g. politicians
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What is Goffman's theory?
Face theory. The image we present in different contexts.
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Positive face
An individual's need to feel valued, liked and appreciated
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Negative face
An individual's need to not be imposed on
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Face-Threatening act
Doing/saying something that rejects another's face needs
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What is Brown and Levinson's theory?
The theory that face needs are met with positive politeness and negative politeness
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Positive politeness
Reinforces respect, value and friendship e.g. tag questions
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Negative politeness
Shows deference e.g. hedging, indirect requests
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What was H.P. Grice's theory?
The cooperative principle - Grice's maxims
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What are Grice's 4 maxims?
Quantity, relevance, manner, quality
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Jargon/subject-specific lexis
The specialist lexis used by a particular profession/interest group
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Formulation
Changing someone's answer to make it correct
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Adjacency pairs
Question + answer, complaint + answer etc.
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Digression
Topic change, usually done by the dominant person in the conversation
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Epistemic modality
Modal verbs that give option e.g. can, could
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Deontic modality
Modal verbs without option e.g. will, should
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Status
Your social standing in a given context
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Tag question
A small question used in discourse to check engagement and comprehension
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Mitigated imperative
When a command is disguised as a question/statement
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Legalese
Legal language, with it's own jargon
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Discourse community
A group of speakers with a common purpose
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Power behind discourse

Back

Power in the form of status or reputation which permits the speaker power in how they use language

Card 3

Front

Power in discourse

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Synthetic personalisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does Fairclough's theory show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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