language and gender

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Robin Lakoff- claimed that
much of womens language lacked real authority when compared to that use by men and proposed a set of features that characterised women language as deficient when compared to mens.
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Peter Trudgill - Studied how
male and female speakers pronounced the suffix-ing in Norwich. Men tended to use a non-standard pronunciation and women over reported.
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Jenny Chesire - Analysed the talk of
teenagers in Reading and found in nearly all cases boys used non standard forms more than girls did.
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Janet Holmes- suggested tag questions may also
Function as a device to help maintain discussion or to be polite rather than s sign of uncertainty
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O'barr and Atkins - Discovered that feature of
uncertain speech were more depended on power relations rather than gender.
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Zimmerman and West
Found that 96% of all interruptions in mixed conversations were made by men
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Beattie- He disagreed with
Zimmerman and West,stating that the majority of interruptions were supportive,which in fact shows listening.
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Jennifer Coates - Suggested that all
Female talk is essentially cooperative in way speakers help negotiate discussion and support each others right as speaker.
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Jennifer Coates - Also suggested that
men will often reject topics of conversation introduced by women. While women accept topics introduced by men
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Jane Pilkinton - Found that women
in same talk were more collaborative than men were in all male talk
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Koenraad Kuiper- Found that all male
talk among members of a rugby team,men were likely to pay less attention to the need to save face.
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Cross-cultural communication - A study that looks at
how people from different cultural backgrounds communicate in similar and different ways among themselves,and how they endeavour the communicate across cultures.
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Deborah Tannen - Attempted to explain
"male - female" miscommunication by claiming that male- female speech was "cross-cultural communication)
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Deborah Jones - studied women gossip
House talk -exchangeof info and resources connected with female role. Scandal -judging behaviour of women. Bitching - making complaints in private or to another women. Chatting-everyday conversations,a form of female small talk
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Julia wood - studied gender communication
Men use communication as a means to exert dominance and as something less abstract.
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Robin Lakoff - women use;
Hedges,empty adjectives,super polite forms,apologies more,speak less frequently,use tag questions,avoid course language,hyper correct grammar,indirect requests,speak in italics.
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Betty Dubious and Isobel Crouch - found men use more
Tag questions than men but DID NOT suggest it was because they was less confident.
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Betty Dubious and Isobel Crouch- Politeness principle
Dont impose on others. - Give receiver options -Make the receiver feel good.
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Janet holmes - Looked at the purpose behind tag questions.
Primary modal = uncertainty -genuine. e.g we're going to the cinema aren't we? Affective - Used to soften the meaning
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Zimmerman and West - Dominance theory
In mixed conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women. Conclusion - since men interrupt more often,then they are dominating or attempting to do so.
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Russel - Argues that
women are frequently controlled by the use of insulting language. The insulting terms are often referred to sexual promiscuity. ('**** or tart') lacking in lexical symmetry
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Lexical asymmetry
An imbalance in the meaning of two words that seem as it they should have matched. e.g lad/****
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pseudoscience
A claim,belief or practise resented as a scientific but shows no evidence.
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Trudgill: Overt prestige.
Women- more likely to use more prestige communication of certain speech sounds, aim of exerting higher overt prestige (above that their observed social class)
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Trudgill: Covert prestige.
Men- often use a low prestige pronunciation,thereby seeking Covert (hidden) prestige pronunciation by appearing "tough" or "down to earth"
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Card 2

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Peter Trudgill - Studied how

Back

male and female speakers pronounced the suffix-ing in Norwich. Men tended to use a non-standard pronunciation and women over reported.

Card 3

Front

Jenny Chesire - Analysed the talk of

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Janet Holmes- suggested tag questions may also

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

O'barr and Atkins - Discovered that feature of

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Preview of the front of card 5
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