English language revision

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  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 07-05-16 15:34
Language Levels
Lexis and Semantics, Grammar and Syntax, Phonology, Discourse, Pragmatics
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Lexis and Semantics
The type of words used, and the relationships between them.
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Examples of Lexis and Semantics
Word classes, high and low frequency lexis, semantic fields and figurative language.
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Grammar and Syntax
How words are created and the how the larger structures (sentences and phrases) are used.
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Examples of Grammar and Syntax
Word formation, phrases, sentence types and function and grammatical cohesion.
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How sound is used.
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Examples of Phonology
Sound production, phonemes and sound symbolism.
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How the text is structured.
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Examples of Discourse
Discourse patterns and type, referencing and narrative structure.
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How the context affects the text's production and reception, and how they operate in real life.
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Examples of Pragmatics
Shared and implied meanings, conversational maxims and deixis.
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Basic Word Classes
Nouns. verbs, adjectives, adverbs, determiners, conjuctions, prepositions and pronouns.
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3 Categories of Register
Field (topic or subject), manner (the existing relationship between participants) and mode (formality).
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Types of Modal Verbs
Epistemic (opinionated e.g might), deontic (to affect a situation e.g must), dynamic (factual e'g he can speak perfect French).
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Types of Adjectives
Base (small), Comparative (smaller), Superlative (smallest) and Empty (little meaningful content e.g friendly)
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Types of Verbs
Dynamic (describes activities or events e.g play) and stative (refers to an unchanging state or condition e.g hate)
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Aspect refers to how an event or action is to be viewed with respect to time, rather than to its actual location in time.
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2 Types of Aspect
Perfective (Present-has fallen. Past- had fallen) and progressive (Present- is falling. Past- was falling).
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Verb Phrase
Verb phrases are larger structures built around a main verb.
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Elements of a Verb Phrase
Extensions, auxiliary verbs and negating particles.
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Noun Phrase
Noun phrases are centred areound a noun, which serves as the head word of the phrase.
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Elements of Noun Phrase
Pre-modifiers, qualifiers and determiners.
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Order of Linguistic Rank Scale
Phoneme > morpheme > lexis > phrase > clause > sentence > discourse/text.
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Anaphoric Referencing
This is when the pronoun refers back to the aforementioned noun e.g The Prime Minister spent his last day in office on Thursday.
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Cataphoric Referencing
This is when the pronoun anticipates the noun e.g I believe him. Tony would never lie.
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Synonyms, Antonyms, Hypernyms, Hyponyms
Synonyms - equivalent meanings, antonyms - opposite meanings, hypernyms - broad meaning. hyponyms - specific meaning.
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Sentence Structures
Minor, simple, compound and complex.
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4 Sentence Types
Declarative (statements), imperative (commands), interrogative (questions) and exclamative (exclamations).
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It is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
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The study of the form and structure of words , made of morphemes (the smallest unit of lexical meaning).
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A three part structure.
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It is the asking of a question followed by an immediate answer.
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The repetition of the same word/phrase in a succession of words or phrases.
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It is a run of questions asked in succession.
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It is a contrast between ideas by placing them together for effect (similar to juxtaposition).
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Structure of a Spoken Text
Orientation (who, where, when and why), complicating action (main body), resolution (the final events), evaluation (additions to the basic story) and coda (sign it is complete, may go back to the beginning).
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Features of Phonology
Onomatopoeia (sounds echoing meaning e.g buzz), alliteration (when two or more words begin with the same sound) and rhyme (words with similar endings).
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Context of Production
This shapes and influences the text. Has the beliefs, intentions, purpose and a sense of an implied reader from the producer and may need shared knowledge to understand,
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Context of Reception
The text is understood through the receiver's beliefs, intentions, purpose and sense of implied writer and the shared knowledge between the two.
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Fairclough's Model - Synthetic Personalisation
1. Building relations through personalisation. 2.Creating an image of a text. 3.Building the consumer.
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Is a set of beliefs and ideas that operates in a way we are often unaware of, e.g consumerism.
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Semantic and Pragmatic Meanings
Semantic- the literal meaning. Pragmatic - the meaning when context is applied 'meaning behind the words'.
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Speech Act Theory - Spoken Text
Locution (literal sense), illocution (implied meaning), perlocution (perceived meaning)
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Speech Act Theory - Written Text
Semantically (literal), pragmatically (implied), reception (how it is received).
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It is the shared context of a text, that needs to be pragmatically understood. (I am here now - who is I? Where is here? When is now?)
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Perfect Paragraph - Text Analysis
1. Define which language level you will look at. 2. Make a point. 3. Bring in the evidence. 4. Analyse the evidence closely (use appropriate terminology). 5. Evaluate why this feature has been used. 6.Repeat for different language level.
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Perfect Paragraph - Text Comparison
1. Define which language level you will look at. 2.Make a point. 3.Bring in the evidence 4.Analyse the evidence. 5. Evaluate the likely effects, thinking of GAP and context. 6. Repeat for the second text. 7. Repeat for another language level.
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Card 2


Lexis and Semantics


The type of words used, and the relationships between them.

Card 3


Examples of Lexis and Semantics


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Card 4


Grammar and Syntax


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Card 5


Examples of Grammar and Syntax


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