English language revision

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  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 07-05-16 15:34
Name the language levels.
Lexis and Semantics, Grammar and Syntax, Phonology, Discourse, Pragmatics
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Define Lexis and Semantics:
The type of words used, and the relationships between them.
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Give examples of lexis and semantics:
Word classes, high and low frequency lexis, semantic fields and figurative language.
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Define Grammar and Syntax:
How words are created and the how the larger structures (sentences and phrases) are used.
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Give examples of grammar and syntax:
Word formation, phrases, sentence types and function and grammatical cohesion.
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Define Phonology:
How sound is used.
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Give examples of phonology:
Sound production, phonemes and sound symbolism.
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Define Discourse:
How the text is structured.
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Give examples of discourse:
Discourse patterns and type, referencing and narrative structure.
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Define Pragmatics:
How the context affects the text's production and reception, and how they operate in real life.
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Give examples of pragmatics:
Shared and implied meanings, conversational maxims and deixis.
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Name the basic word classes:
Nouns. verbs, adjectives, adverbs, determiners, conjuctions, prepositions and pronouns.
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Name the three categories register breaks down into:
Field (topic or subject), manner (the existing relationship between participants) and mode (formality).
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Name the types of modal verbs:
Epistemic (opinionated e.g might), deontic (to affect a situation e.g must), dynamic (factual e'g he can speak perfect French).
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Name the types of adjectives:
Base (small), Comparative (smaller), Superlative (smallest) and Empty (little meaningful content e.g friendly)
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Name the types of verbs:
Dynamic (describes activities or events e.g play) and stative (refers to an unchanging state or condition e.g hate)
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Define aspect:
Aspect refers to how an event or action is to be viewed with respect to time, rather than to its actual location in time.
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Name the two types of aspect:
Perfective (Present-has fallen. Past- had fallen) and progressive (Present- is falling. Past- was falling).
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Define what a verb phrase is:
Verb phrases are larger structures built around a main verb.
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Name the other elements of a verb phrase:
Extensions, auxiliary verbs and negating particles.
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Define what a noun phrase is:
Noun phrases are centred areound a noun, which serves as the head word of the phrase.
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Name the other elements of a noun phrase:
Pre-modifiers, qualifiers and determiners.
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Name the order of the linguistic rank scale:
Phoneme > morpheme > lexis > phrase > clause > sentence > discourse/text.
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Define anaphoric referencing:
This is when the pronoun refers back to the aforementioned noun e.g The Prime Minister spent his last day in office on Thursday.
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Define cataphoric referencing:
This is when the pronoun anticipates the noun e.g I believe him. Tony would never lie.
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Defnine synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms:
Synonyms - equivalent meanings, antonyms - opposite meanings, hypernyms - broad meaning. hyponyms - specific meaning.
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Name the different sentence structures:
Minor, simple, compound and complex.
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Name the four sentence types:
Declarative (statements), imperative (commands), interrogative (questions) and exclamative (exclamations).
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Define metaphors:
It is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
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Define morphology:
The study of the form and structure of words , made of morphemes (the smallest unit of lexical meaning).
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Define tricolon:
A three part structure.
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Define rogatio:
It is the asking of a question followed by an immediate answer.
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Define anaphora:
The repetition of the same word/phrase in a succession of words or phrases.
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Define quaestitio:
It is a run of questions asked in succession.
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Define antithesis
It is a contrast between ideas by placing them together for effect (similar to juxtaposition).
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Name the structure of a spoken text:
Orientation (who, where, when and why), complicating action (main body), resolution (the final events), evaluation (additions to the basic story) and coda (sign it is complete, may go back to the beginning).
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Name features linked to phonology:
Onomatopoeia (sounds echoing meaning e.g buzz), alliteration (when two or more words begin with the same sound) and rhyme (words with similar endings).
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Describe the context of production:
This shapes and influences the text. Has the beliefs, intentions, purpose and a sense of an implied reader from the producer and may need shared knowledge to understand,
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Describe the context of reception:
The text is understood through the receiver's beliefs, intentions, purpose and sense of implied writer and the shared knowledge between the two.
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Name the three stages of Fairclough's model of synthetic personalisation:
1. Building relations through personalisation. 2.Creating an image of a text. 3.Building the consumer.
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Define ideology
Is a set of beliefs and ideas that operates in a way we are often unaware of, e.g consumerism.
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Define semantic and pragmatic meanings.
Semantic- the literal meaning. Pragmatic - the meaning when context is applied 'meaning behind the words'.
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Name the stages of speech act theory for a spoken text:
Locution (literal sense), illocution (implied meaning), perlocution (perceived meaning)
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Name the stages of speech act theory for a written text:
Semantically (literal), pragmatically (implied), reception (how it is received).
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Define deixis
It is the shared context of a text, that needs to be pragmatically understood. (I am here now - who is I? Where is here? When is now?)
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Perfect paragraph for analysis of text:
1. Define which language level you will look at. 2. Make a point. 3. Bring in the evidence. 4. Analyse the evidence closely (use appropriate terminology). 5. Evaluate why this feature has been used. 6.Repeat for different language level.
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Perfect paragraph for comparison of two texts:
1. Define which language level you will look at. 2.Make a point. 3.Bring in the evidence 4.Analyse the evidence. 5. Evaluate the likely effects, thinking of GAP and context. 6. Repeat for the second text. 7. Repeat for another language level.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Lexis and Semantics:

Back

The type of words used, and the relationships between them.

Card 3

Front

Give examples of lexis and semantics:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define Grammar and Syntax:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give examples of grammar and syntax:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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