Langer & Rodin 1976 Flashcards.

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  • Created on: 07-04-14 15:52
Wider context of Langer and Rodin?
'Control refers to the extent to which an individual feels able to direct/regulate her own behaviour.' Locus (sources of control) can be internal - where you control your own behaviour and choices; or external - you believe that your behaviour is aha
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Wider context - locus?
Locus (sources of control) can be internal - where you control your own behaviour and choices; or external - you believe that your behaviour is shaped by the choices of 'others'.
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Conclusion of wider context?
Those with higher internal locus of control tend to face less stress hence are less likely to become ill. Therefore as the population gets older it is important that the aged continue to make choices so they are less likely to face ill health.
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Context 2?
Seligman felt that a lack of control and choice leads to depression. He called this learned helplessness - i.e. when people have no control they learn to give up, like walking corpses in concentration camps.
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Context 2 conclusion?
Thus L&R were looking to see if increased choice and responsibility improved wellbeing.
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Academic context?
Ferrare (1962) observe dthe effect of older people not having a hoice about where they live. In a group of 17 people who had to move to a specific old peoples home, 8 had died by the end of 4 weeks, and a further 8 after 10 weeks (all deaths unexpect
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Ferrare experiment.
In a group of 17 elders who had to move to a specific old peoples home, 8 had died by the end of 4 weeks, and a further 8 after 10 weeks (all deaths unexpected). This suggests a lack of choice affects well-being as Langer aimed to test.
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L&R aim 1?
To investigate the effect of increased responsibility and choices, on happiness and perceived control, for a group of nursing home patients.
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L&R aim 2?
To test the impact of increased responsibility on factors such as satisfaction and mental alertness (variables not previously tested).
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Procedures: What was L&R research method?
A field experiment in a high quality nursing home in the USA (Conneticut)
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Procedures: L&R sample?
91 old people (ages 65-90, those not in this range were removed as were non-communicative/bedbound patients). There was also a 51 year old taken out due to his disability.
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Procedures: Research Involved 1?
Establishing 2 groups of residents from 2 different floors of the home, 8 males and 39 females were in the responsibility group (RIG) on the 4th floor, and 9 males 35 females in control group on 2nd floor. (balanced in terms of health, class, time)
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How many residents on floor 2?
9 males, 35 females (Control group)
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Residents on floor 4?
8 males and 39 females, (Responsibility Group) RIG.
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What were all pps like?
Balanced in terms of health, class, time in the home etc)
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Procedures: Research involved 2?
Giving all pas a questionnaire which rated how happy and active ops felt on a scale of 0-8.
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Procedures: Research Involved 3?
Giving 2 nurses (day and night nurse) a different questionnaire assessing the ops across 9, 10 point scales including alertness, active participation and a sense of well-being.
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Procedures: Research Involved 4?
The research assistant also rated their alertness.
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Procedures: Research involved 5?
One week later announcements were given to each group separately by their 33 yr old male boss of the home.
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Procedures: Research Involved 6?
THhe RIG were given a message emphasising their responsibility for themselves.
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Procedures: Research involved 7?
The RIG were also allowed to make choices (e.g. whether movie night was thursday or friday, or how to complain.) And giving them the responsibility of choosing and looking after a plant.
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Things RIG were told?
Telling them about their influence on the home, say they were responsible for the way their rooms were arranged, they could choose how to spend their time (e.g. visitors).
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Procedures: Research Involved 8?
The CG were given a different message emphasising how the staff were responsible for their happiness.
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Procedures: Research Involved 9?
Staff also made decisions for the CG (e.g. which night was movie night) and looked after the plant for them and gave them one.
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Things CG were told.
Told about the options 'we provide'. Our responsibility to be a happy home, let people know when movie night is and when they are allocated to see it.
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Procedures: Research Involved 10?
Pps were revisited 3 days later. the RIG were told that 'we want you to be happy. Treat this like your home and make al the decisions you used to make.' However CG were told 'we want you to be happy'.
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Procedures: Research Involved 11?
3 weeks later the ops and the nurses filled in their questionnaires again. This lowed L&R to see if improvements were made.
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Procedures: Research Involved 12?
There were also behavioural measures such as if they went to movie night, entered the jelly bean guessing competition, etc.
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L&R address ethical issues by?
Ensuring all staff still continued to give the same high quality care to all patients.
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Found 1?
No significant differences between the RIG and the CG on the first questionnaire in terms of happiness, activity etc.
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Found? 2
After being allowed to make choices, 48% of RIG felt happier, this improvement was only 25% for the CG.
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Found? 3
L&R found that the RIG spent more time visiting other patients, visiting people from outside of the home, and more time talking to staff. They also spent less time doing passive activities such as watching TV, Staff and reading compared to RIG.
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Found? 4
Attendance to movie night was higher for the RIG - the groups showed no difference in this attendance one month earlier.
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Found? 5
In the jelly bean guessing competition, 10 pps from the RIG took part, compared to only 1 from the CG.
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Found? 6
The nurses judged 93% of the RIG to have improved in the 3-4 week period, whereas only 21% of the CG showed this positive change.
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How many of CG deemed more debilitated after 3 weeks?
71%
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Found? 7
20% of ops were unable to understand 'what we meant by control' and so this measure was not used as a comparison.
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Concluded 1?
Giving people responsibility and enabling them to make decisions has a positive effect on their mental and physical health (93% improvement)
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Concluded 2?
Procedures/policies can and should be put into place to remove any factors in institutions that reduce real or perceived responsibility.
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Reliability?
Problematic - standardised procedure, same questionnaire for all pps. However field experiments aren't usually controlled but it is due to being in an old peoples home. However there could have been confounding variables affecting health/wellbeing
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External Validity?
Strong - used a field experiment in a real nursing home so paints a true picture of real life behaviour. However due to being high quality, may not reflect society on the whole.
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Sampling?
Strong - large sample of 91 ops. However there could have been culture bias as it was only 1 home in the USA, so the opportunist sample may not be representative.
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Data?
Strong - quantitative (48% RIG felt happier.) Qualitative (how much time sent reading/visiting others) so there was depth and comparisons/predictions could be made.
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Ethics?
Problematic. All ops got same quality care, however patients who didn't have choice may have deteriorated as a result..TST breaks ethical guidelines.
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Alternative evidence for L&R?
Ferrare, Seligman & Savell.
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Alternative Evidence 1?
Supported by Ferrare as he found that old people did not choose 16/17 died unexpectedly. Supports L&R as 71% of CG were judges to be more debilitated after 3 weeks, thus agreeing with F that lack of choice negatively affects wellbeing.
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Alt evidence 1 which is better?
Langer's was more scientific as there was a CG (2nd floor) so could be compared with the RIG, whereas F didn't have this comparison.
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Alt evidence 2?
Seligman supports as he said a lack of choice leads to learned helplessness and depression. Supports as those in CG spent more time completing passive activities and were deemed more 'debilitated.' L&R more valid as they used human pps not dogs
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Alt evidence 3?
Savell rejects as ge found that there was no significant difference in physical wellbeing and leisure satisfaction of 43 elderly people placed into groups with/without control. Challenges as it suggests choice does not affect wellbeing.
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Alt ev 3 which is better?
L&R more internally valid as the difference between amounts of choice for the two groups was not as great in Savell's research.
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Card 2

Front

Wider context - locus?

Back

Locus (sources of control) can be internal - where you control your own behaviour and choices; or external - you believe that your behaviour is shaped by the choices of 'others'.

Card 3

Front

Conclusion of wider context?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Context 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Context 2 conclusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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