langage and technology

grace's maxims
Quantity-dont say to or much or to little. Quality -be truthful. Relevance - Keep to the point. Manner-Speak in a clear and orderly way
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Shegloff -Canonical sequence
1) Summons/answer -opens channels of communication. 2)Identification/recognition -not needed for face-to-face 3)greeting sequence 4) how are you sequence
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Lackoff - rules for conversations
1)Be clear 2)Be polite 3) Do not impose 4) give options 5)be friendly
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Brown and levison - Face=public self-image
positive face- The need to be liked and accepted Negative face - The need not to be imposed on Positive politeness - used with friends to emphasise solidarity Negative politeness -emphasise respect if theres a social difference between speakers
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Howard Giles
Convergence -speech is adjusted to match others (shows unity and feeling of shared identity. Divergence-opposite to convergence but emphasise separation and distinction
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Computer imitate human interaction " are you sure?" Allows you to 'take turns i.e using a drop down menu for your turn'
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Christoper Werry
In internet chat people use more letters than necessary to imitate speech or semantic nuances. Text and email are like talk as people take turns and its normal
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Linguistic compression used in text. Vowel deletion,phonetic spelling,initilisms and letter/number homophones
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David Crystal -' Textspeak'
Says text messaging used a variety of acronyms and variant spelling compression and also pragmatic meanings. Has enhanced socialist and idiolect and a widening of the english language lexicon.
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Shegloff -'Canonical opening'
Most telephone conversations start similarly
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Tim shortis - Plascity
Plascity- Using an online site to create a virtual identity and isn't real.
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Feel that text message features are destroying the english language.
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Sinclair - Compressed English
Compressed English - Like how small ads are written
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Howard Giles Accommodation theory
Accommodation theory -divergence. - people mimic each others syntactic and lexical choice for convergence
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Brown and levison
Positive politeness - we show we admire someone. Negative politeness - avoid intruding. Synchronous communication -Internet chat as it happens in 'real time' Asynchronous communication -email/texting theres a delay between.
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Lackoff -Politeness theory
Politeness theory - We speak/message in a positive manner to co-operate with others.
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W.Labov -Narrative structure
Opening -orientation-narrative-evaluation-coda. He said all verbal recounts of a story/anecdote follow the same structure
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Texting lacks personality- considers the use of emoticons to represent emotions digresses from what makes our personality unique
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functions of spoken language
phatic = small talk. Referential -giving info. Interactional = building social relationships. Expressive = giving options. Transactional = focus on getting something done (asking questions)
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Technological convergence
The combination of more than one type of technology.
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Texts can be ambiguous
due to lack of prosodic features
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multi-model texts
uses words and images to produce meanings
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An individuals distinctive and unique use of vocabulary including speech. Also including Vocabulary,grammar and pronunciation.
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Features of a text message
Letter and number homophones. Words including numbers. Duplication of letters for emphasis. Duplication of punctuation. Capitalisation foe emphasis. Colloquial and phonetic spelling. Emoticons. Acronyms. Delegation of words. Initialism.
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Card 2


Shegloff -Canonical sequence


1) Summons/answer -opens channels of communication. 2)Identification/recognition -not needed for face-to-face 3)greeting sequence 4) how are you sequence

Card 3


Lackoff - rules for conversations


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Card 4


Brown and levison - Face=public self-image


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Howard Giles


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