L4 Control of energy homeostasis and the endocrine pancreas.

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  • Created by: Stephanie
  • Created on: 14-04-14 15:32
What is energy metabolism?
The way we store and utilise energy (that comes from ingestion).
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What factors effect energy metabolism?
Stress, stage of growth eg adolescence, illness, individ rate of metabolism. (genetic)
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How is metabolism measured?
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What is catabolic met?
breakdown of large complex molecs into smaller ones. Releases energy e.g glucose
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What is anabolic metabolism?
synthesis of complex molecs from simpler ones. eg amino acids--->proteins.
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What is the primary source of energy for the brain?
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During food intake nutrients are....., then inbetween meals they are....
stored, released.
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What is the released energy used for?
muscle contraction, transport, secretion, anabolism, growth, repair, storage molecules.
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Why is only 1% of total energy stored from carbohydrates?
They are utilised first.
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How are lipids stored, where, and what % of total E stored is from lipids?
Stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue. 77%
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What is energy balance?
When input = output. INTAKE-OUTPUT=E.BALANCE
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What is metabolic rate?
RATE AT WHICH CHEMICAL ENERGY IS EXPENDED. (The amount of energy expended per unit time). = to rate of heat production.
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What is metabolic rate influenced by?
Age, gender, musc activity, body SA, enviro temp.
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What is basal metabolic rate? BMR
Rate of E expenditure of a person who is awake, lying down, relaxed, fasted for 12hours in a thermoneutral enviro (20C).
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What do you need to know to calculate metabolic rate?
Rate at which individ is using up oxygen (L.min-1). How much oxy needed to metabolise the type of food. (kJ per L of oxygen). X these values by 60.
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What is metabolic rate measured in?
kJh-1 (Amount of E expended per unit time).
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How is oxy consumption measured?
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How is the energy equiv of oxy for the food being metabolised measured?
RQ=CO2 produced/ O2 consumed (in 1min). use data tables to calc BMR.
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Basal metabolic rate is genetically determined?
Yes. Also affected by body weight, SA, age, sex, pregnancy, lean muscle mass.
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What physiological factors affect metabolic rate?
Increases: exercise, high protein meals, fever. Decreases: Sleep. Fasting, initially inc then dec.
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Hormones affect E metabolism (way we utilise food in the body). Which are very important?
Thyroid Hormones
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Which hormones have a mild stimulatory effect on metabolic rate?
Growth hormones, male sex steroids.
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During the absorptive state/ anabolic (when eat food), energy is....... in macromolecules. During the postabsorptive state/catabolic(between meals) energy stores are.....
Stored, mobilised.
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During which state is insulin released?
anabolic (when eating)
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When is glucagon released?
catabolic state (when fasting)
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Transition between states is controlled by ...... by.... feedback
Pancreatic hormones- release is triggered by plasma glucose levels. Negative feedback
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What is the endo and exocrine funcs of pancreas?
Endo: Secretes hormones Exo: secretes digestive juices to aid digestion.
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What us the role of insulin?
Promote synthesis of energy storage molecules.
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Glucagon has an ..... action to insulin and promotes....
Antagonist (opposing). Promotes catabolism.
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The half life of insulin and glucagon is around?
4-6 mins (short)
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What is normal blood glucose levels?
70-140mg dl-1 (4-8mmol l-1)
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Higher than....... indicates hyperglycaemia
140mg dl-1
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Lower than 60, 50, or 45mg dl -1 indicates hypoglycaemia?
60mg dl-1
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How are adrenal corticosteroids involved in glucose regulation?
Promote glycogen production and maintain glycogen reserves.
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As growth hormone is an anti-insulin sparing agent it....
Depresses glucose uptake.
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Card 2


What factors effect energy metabolism?


Stress, stage of growth eg adolescence, illness, individ rate of metabolism. (genetic)

Card 3


How is metabolism measured?


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Card 4


What is catabolic met?


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Card 5


What is anabolic metabolism?


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