# KW Physics

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- Created by: india.krishman
- Created on: 22-05-16 14:37

Absolute refractive index

The ratio between the speed of light in a vacuum and the speed of light in a material.

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Absorption (fibre optics)

Where some of the energy of a fibre-optic signal is absorbed by the material of the fibre optic.

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Acceleration

The rate of change of velocity.

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Alpha decay

Type of decay in which an unstable nucleus of an atom emits an alpha particle.

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Ammeter

Component used to measure the current flowing through a circuit- always attached in series.

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Amplitude

The maximum displacement of a wave, i.e. the distance from the undisturbed position to a crest or trough.

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Angle of incidence

The angle that incoming light makes with the normal of a boundary.

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Angle of refraction

The angle that refracted light makes with the normal of a boundary.

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Annihilation

The process by which a particle and its antiparticle meet and their mass gets converted to energy in the form of a pair of gamma ray photons.

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Antimatter

The name given to all antiparticles.

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Antinode

A point of maximum displacement on a stationary wave.

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Antiparticle

A particle with the same rest mass and energy as its corresponding particle, but equal and opposite charge.

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Atom

A particle made up of protons and neutrons in a central nucleus, and electrons orbiting the nucleus.

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Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom of element.

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Baryon

A type of hadron made up of three quarks. E.g. protons and neutrons.

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Baryon number

The number of baryons in a particle. It is conserved in all particle interactions.

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Beta-minus decay

A type of decay in which an unstable nucleus of an atom emits a beta-minus particle (an electron) and an antineutrino.

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Beta-plus decay

A type of decay in which an unstable nucleus of an atom emits a beta-plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino.

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Breaking stress

The lowest stress that's big enough to break a material.

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Brittle

A brittle material doesn't deform plastically, but snaps when the stress on it reaches a certain point.

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Brittle fracture

When a stress applied to a brittle material causes tiny cracks at the material's surface to get bigger until the material breaks completely.

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Calibration

Marking a scale on a measuring instrument or checking a scale by measuring a known value.

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Centre of mass

The point which you can consider all of an object's weight to act through.

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Cloud chamber

A chamber filled with a vapour which is used to track the motion of charged particles.

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Coherent

Sources (or waves) that have the same wavelength and frequency and a fixed phase difference between them, are coherent.

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Compressive force

A force which squashes something.

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Principle of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be transferred from one form to another, but the total amount of energy in a closed system will not change.

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Constructive interference

When two waves interfere to make a wave with a larger displacement.

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Cosmic ray showers

Lots of high-energy particles that are produced from cosmic rays interacting with molecules in the atmosphere.

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Cosmic rays

Radiation in the form of charged particles that come from space and hit earth.

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Coulomb (C)

A unit of charge. One coulomb is the amount of charge that passes in 1 second when the current is 1 ampere.

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Couple

A pair of forces of equal size which act parallel to each other but in opposite directions.

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Critical angle

The angle of incidence at which the angle of refraction is 90 degrees.

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Crumple zone

Part of a car or other vehicle designed to deform plastically in a crash so less energy is transferred to the people inside.

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Current

The rate of flow of charge in a circuit (amps).

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Density

The mass per unit volume of a material or object.

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Destructive interference

When two waves interfere to make a wave with a reduced displacement.

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Diffraction

When waves spread out as they pass through a narrow gap or go round obstacles.

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Diffraction grating

A slide or other thin object that contains lots of equally spaced slits very close together, used to show diffraction patterns of waves.

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Diode

A component designed to allow current flow in one direction only.

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Dispersion

A form of signal degradation that causes pulse broadening of a fibre-optic signal as it travels.

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Displacement

How far an object has travelled from its starting point in a given direction.

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Drag

Friction caused by a fluid (gas or liquid).

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Elastic

An elastic material returns to its original length/shape once the forces acting on it are removed.

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Elastic limit

The force (or stress) beyond which a material will be permanently stretched.

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Elastic strain energy

The energy stored in a stretched material.

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Electromagnetic force

A fundamental force that causes interactions between charged particles. Virtual photons are the exchange particle.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

A continuous spectrum of all the possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

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Electromotive force (e.m.f.)

The amount of electrical energy a power supply transfers to each coulomb of charge.

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Electron

A lepton with a relative charge of -1 and a relative mass of 0.0005. Sometimes called a B- particle.

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Electron capture

The process of a proton-rich nucleus capturing an electron to turn a proton into a neutron, emitting a neutrino.

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Electron-proton collision

The process of an electron colliding with a proton and producing a neutron and a neutrino.

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Electron volt

The kinetic energy carried by an electron after it has been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 1 volt.

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Equilibrium

An object is in equilibrium if all the forces acting on it cancel each other out.

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Exchange particle

A virtual particle which allows forces to act in a particle interaction. They are also known as gauge bosons.

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Excitation

The movement of an electron to a higher energy level in an atom.

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First harmonic

The lowest frequency at which a stationary wave is formed where the wavelength is double the length of the vibrating medium.

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Freefall

The motion of an object undergoing an acceleration of 'g'.

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Frequency

The number of whole wave cycles (oscillations) per second passing a given point. Or the number of whole wave cycles (oscillations) given out from a source per second.

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Friction

A force that opposes motion. It acts in the opposite direction to the motion. It arises when two objects are moving past each other, or an object is moving through a fluid.

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Fundamental particle

A particle which cannot be split up into smaller particles.

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Geiger counter

A device used to measure the amount of ionising radiation,

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Gravitational force

A fundamental force which causes attraction between objects with a force proportional to their mass.

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Ground state

The lowest energy level of an atom or lowest energy level for an electron in an atom.

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Hadron

A particle made up of quarks that is affected by the strong nuclear force.

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Hooke's Law

The extension of a stretched object is proportional to the load or force applied to it. This applies up to the limit of proportionality.

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Hooke's law limit

The point beyond which force is no longer proportional to th

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Hooke's law limit

The point beyond which force is no longer proportional to th

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Hooke's law limit or Limit of proportionality

The point beyond which force is no longer proportional to extension.

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Impulse

The impulse acting on an object is equal to the change in momentum of the object.

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Instantaneous velocity

The velocity of an object at a particular moment in time.

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Intensity

Power per unit area.

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Interference

The superposition of two or more waves.

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Internal resistance

The resistance created in a power source when electrons collide with atoms inside the power source and lose energy.

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Ionisation

The process where an electron is removed from (or added to) an atom.

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Ionisation energy

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its ground state.

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Isotopic data

The relative amounts of isotopes in a substance.

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Lepton

A fundamental particle that is not affected by the strong nuclear force.

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Lift

An upwards force on an object moving through a fluid.

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Line absorption spectrum

A light spectrum with dark lines corresponding to different wavelengths of light that have been absorbed.

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Line emission spectrum

A spectrum of bright lines on a dark background corresponding to different wavelengths of light that have been emitted from a light source.

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Line spectrum

A pattern of lines produced by photons being emitted or absorbed by electrons moving between energy level in an atom.

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Longitudnal wave

A wave in which the displacement of particles/fields (vibrations) is in the direction of energy propagation.

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Lost volts

The energy wasted per coulomb overcoming the internal resistance of a power source.

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Mass number

The number of nucleons in an atom of an element.

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Maximum (interference)

A point in an interference pattern where the intensity is locally brightest. A location of constructive interference.

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Meson

A type of hadron made up of a quark and an antiquark. E.g. pions and kaons.

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Minimum (interference)

A point in an interference pattern where the intensity is locally lowest. A location of destructive interference.

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Moment

The turning effect of a force around a turning point.

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Moment of a couple

The moment caused by two equal forces acting parallel to each other but in opposite direction around a turning point.

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Monochromatic

A light source that is all of the same wavelength (or frequency).

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Neutrino

A lepton with almost zero mass and zero charge.

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Newton's 1st law of motion

The velocity of an object will not change unless a resultant force acts on it.

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Newton's 2nd law of motion

The acceleration of an object is proportional to the resultant force acting on it.

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Newton's 3rd law of motion

If an object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts an equal but opposite force on object A.

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Node

A point of minimum amplitude on a stationary wave.

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Nucleon number

The number of nucelons in an atom of an element.

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Optical density

The property of a medium that describes how fast light travels through it. Light moves slower through a medium with a higher optical density.

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Optical fibre

A thin flexible tube of glass or plastic that can carry light signals using total internal reflection.

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Pair production

A process of converting energy to mass in which a gamma ray photon has enough energy to produce a particle-antiparticle pair.

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Path difference

The amount by which the path travelled by one wave is longer than the path travelled by another wave.

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Period

The time taken for one whole wave cycle to pass a given point.

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Phase

A measurement of the postion of a certain point on a wave cycle. (Measured as an angle in degrees or radians, or in fractions of a cycle).

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Phase difference

The amount by which one wave lags behind another. (Measured as an angle in degrees or radians, or in fractions of a cycle).

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Photoelectric effect

The emission of electrons from a metal when light of a high enough frequency is shone on it.

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Photoelectron

An electron released through the photoelectric effect.

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Photon

A discrete wave-packet of EM waves.

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Plastic

A plastic material is permanently stretched once the forces acting on it are removed.

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Polarised wave

A wave in which all the vibrations are in one direction or plane.

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Polarising filter

A fliter that only transmits vibrations of a wave in one direction or plane, called the plane of transmission.

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Potential difference

The work done moving a unit charge between two points in a circuit.

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Potential divider

A circuit containing a voltage source and a pair of resistors. The voltage across one of the resistors is used as an output voltage. If the resistors aren't fixed, the circuit will be capable of producing a variable output voltage.

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Power

The rate of transfer of energy or the rate of doing work. Measured in watts (W), where 1 watt is equivalent to 1 joule per second.

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Progressive wave

A moving wave that carries energy from one place to another without transferring any material.

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Projectile motion

Motion with a constant horizontal velocity and a vertical velocity affected by acceleration due to gravity.

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Pulse broadening

When signal in an optical fibre gets wider (broader) as it is transmitted, due to dispersion.

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Quark

A fundamental particle that makes up hadrons.

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Reflection

When a wave bounces back as it hits a boundary.

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Refraction

When a wave changes direction and speed as it enters a medium with a different optical density.

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Relative refractive index

The ratio of the speed of light in one material to the speed of light in a second material.

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Resistivity

The resistance of a 1m length of a material with a 1m^2 cross-sectional area. Measured in ohm-metres.

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Resonant frequency

A frequency at which a stationary wave is formed because an exact number of waves are produced in the time it takes for a wave to get to the end of the vibrating medium and back again.

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Scalar

A quantity with a size but no direction.

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Semiconductor

A group of materials which conduct electricity (but not as well as metals). When their temperature rises, they can release more charge carriers and their resistance decreases.

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Spark counter

A device to detect ionising radiation.

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Specific charge

The charge per unit mass of a particle.

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Stationary wave

A wave created by the superposition of two progressive waves with the same frequency (or wavelength) and amplitude, moving in opposite directions.

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Stiffness constant

The force needed to extend an object per unit extension. The units are Nm^-1. Each object has its own stiffness constant.

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Stopping potential

The potential difference needed to stop the fastest moving photoelectrons in the photoelectric effect..

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Strain

The change in length divided by the original length of the material.

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Strangeness

A property which particles that contain strange quarks have. Strange particles are always produced in pairs.

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Stress

The force applied divided by the cross-sectional area.

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Strong nuclear force

A fundamental force with a short range which is attractive at small separations and repulsive at very small separations. Counteracts the electromagnetic force to holds the nucleus together.

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Superconductor

A material that has zero resistivity when cooled below a critical temperature.

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Superposition

The combination of displacements experienced in the instant that two waves pass each other.

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Tensile force

A force which stretches something.

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Terminal potential difference

The potential difference between the two terminals of a power supply. This is equal to e.m.f. when there is no internal resistance.

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Terminal speed

The speed at which the driving force(s) match the frictional force(s).

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Threshold frequency

The lowest frequency of light that when shone on a metal will cause electrons to be released from it.

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Total destructive interference

Destructive interference in which the waves completely cancel each other out.

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Total internal reflection

When all light is completely reflected back into a medium at a boundary with another medium, instead of being refracted. It only happens at angles of incidence greater than the critical angle.

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Transitional temperature

The critical temperature at and below which a superconductor has zero resistivity.

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Transverse wave

A wave in which the displacement of particles/fields (vibrations) is perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation.

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Where some of the energy of a fibre-optic signal is absorbed by the material of the fibre optic.

#### Back

Absorption (fibre optics)

### Card 3

#### Front

The rate of change of velocity.

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

Type of decay in which an unstable nucleus of an atom emits an alpha particle.

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Component used to measure the current flowing through a circuit- always attached in series.

#### Back

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