KW Ethics

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There are no universal truths; truths/morals are relative to the situation/person/society.
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Truths and morals are universal and do not change.
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A moral system based on duty.
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Designed for/directed to an end.
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The consequences of an action determine if it is the right thing to do.
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The analysis of ethical language.
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Normative ethics
A term used to describe different moral codes of behaviour; rules by which we make moral decisions.
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Applied ethics
The application of ethical theories to specific issues such as abortion, euthanasia etc.
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Cultural relativism
What is right or wrong depends on the culture.
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Descriptive relativism
Different cultures and societies have differing ethical systems and so morality is relative.
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Each person's values are relative to that person and so cannot be judged objectively.
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Diversity thesis
Because of the diversity across and within cultures, there can't be one true morality.
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Dependency thesis
What is right or wrong depends upon the nature of the society.
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The final goal of all human activity- happiness, well-being, human flourishing.
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Eternal law
The principles that God made and by which he controls the universe.
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Divine law
The Bible, reflects the eternal law of God. Can only be seen by those who believe in God and only if he chooses to reveal it.
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Natural law
The theory that an eternal, absolute moral law can be discovered by reason. Doesn't depend on belief in God.
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Apparent good
Something which seems to be good or the right thing to do but which does not fit the perfect human ideal.
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Real good
The right thing to do- it fits the human ideal.
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Principle of utility
The theory of usefulness- the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
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The view that pleasure is the chief 'good'.
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Looking at the quantity of happiness.
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If an act is right or wrong for one person in a situation, then it is right or wrong for anyone in that situation.
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Rule utilitarianism
Establishing a general rule that follows utilitarian principles.
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Act utilitarianism
A teleological theory that uses the outcome of an action to determine whether it is good or bad.
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Preference utilitarianism
Moral actions are right or wrong according to how they fit the preferences of those involved.
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Negative utilitarianism
The principle of minimising pain.
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Primary precepts
The fundamental principles of Natural Moral Law.
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Secondary precepts
These are worked out from the primary precepts.
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Copernican Revolution
Belief that the solar system revolves around the sun.
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Self-directed freedom, arriving at moral judgement through reason.
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Good will
Making a moral choice expresses good will.
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A motive for acting in a certain way which shows moral quality.
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Hypothetical imperative
An action that achieves some goal or end.
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Categorical imperative
A command to perform actions that are absolute moral obligations without reference to other ends.
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A general rule in accordance with which we intend to act.
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Kingdom of ends
A world in which people do not treat others as means but only ends.
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Looking at the quality of the pleasure.
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Euthyphro dilemma
Is something good because God commands it or does God command it because it is good?
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Divine command theory
Actions are right or wrong depending on whether they follow God's commands or not.
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Only pleasure and the absence of pain have utility or intrinsic value.
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Card 2


Truths and morals are universal and do not change.



Card 3


A moral system based on duty.


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Card 4


Designed for/directed to an end.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The consequences of an action determine if it is the right thing to do.


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