KQ2..Urban Case study 2 (part 1): Newcastle-decline

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Where is Newcastle located?
North-east of England, situated north of the River Tyne
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What was Newcastle's population like in 1961?
330,000 people
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What was it in 1991?
260,000 people
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So in 30 years, how much has Newcastle's population declined?
By 70,000 people
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Why did people start to leave Newcastle?
People started to seek work elsewhere after Newcastle's traditional economy started to decline.
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What was Newcastle's traditional economy based on?
Ship building, exporting coal, iron/steel manufacture, pottery/glass production and engineering.
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What do those industries have in common?
They were all heavy and highly pollutant industries
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When did it start to decline?
1950's plus..coal ran out and it was cheaper to import coal in from LEDC's
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Why would it be cheaper to import coal from LEDC's?
Cheaper land, cheaper raw materials, cheaper labour due to relaxed laws
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When did the last coal mine close?
In 1956
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Did de-industrilisation occur then or industrilisation?
De-industrilisation-manufacturing shifted to Asia and ship building moved to Korea
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After de-industrilisation, why did thousands of people loose their jobs?
Mechanisation left little jobs for people (this is why many people decided to leave Newcastle=lowering the population)
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What is containerisation and how did it help Newcastle?
Containerisation is when all boxes are made the same size so shipping in the world is more efficient. Newcastle is slightly inland and so big ships can't sail down the river, containerisation means places like Newcastle can produce products elsewhere
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So in 1961 Newcastle's population was at 330,000 and declined to 260,000 in 1991, how did this bring physical decline?
As many people migrated out of Newcastle, houses were left empty and so areas became derelict showing signs of urban decline.
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What are the 4 D's that led to Newcastle's population decline?
1. De-industrialisation 2. Decline 3.Deprivation 4.Dereliction
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1.De-industrialisation and 2.Decline=
The stable industries based on coal, chemicals and shipbuilding DECLINED rapidly causing socio-economic problems and deprivation in the late 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s
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The area has fewer job opportunities, less quality housing, and poorer services for residents (e.g. schools and hospitals). For residents it means a lower quality of life.
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people began to out-migrate leaving run-down buildings, closed shops/services, few people and environmental issues PUSHING more people away
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Card 2


What was Newcastle's population like in 1961?


330,000 people

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What was it in 1991?


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Card 4


So in 30 years, how much has Newcastle's population declined?


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Card 5


Why did people start to leave Newcastle?


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