Kohlberg moral development

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Definition of a moral dilemma?
A story about and individual who is placed in a situation where there is choice between to courses of action, both of which involoving something that is considered wrong.
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What is the issue with the congnitive load of the moral dilemma technique? How does this link with Piaget?
With younger ppts, it is possible that the task of remembering the detail of the dilemma places to large a demand on memory. Link with the flaw of Piaget which was proven by Feldman.
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Heinz Dilemma?
Husband must decide whether to steal a drug for sick wife and risk imprisonment or not and avoid imprisonment but risk death of wife
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Method of 1963 study?
72 boys aged 10-16 were given Heinz dilemma and we interviewed about their decision and the reasoning behind it.
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Results and conclusion of 1963 study?
Results:Younger ppts focused on likely punishment and personal gain. Older ppts were more concerned with care, the law and views of society. Conclusion: moral judgements are more complex with age.
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Pre-conventional level? Similar to?
Moral reaonsing is externally controlled, this is similar to the heteronomous stage proposed by Piaget.
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Stage 1: Punishment?
Reasoning is based upon whether an action will result in punishment or not.
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Stage 2: Reward?
Reasoning is based on what the individual has to gain from the various options.
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Conventional level?
Involves the maintenance of a socially agreed system of behaving.
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Stage 3: Good-boy, Good-girl?
Moral descions are made on the basis of what other people would think.
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Stage 4: Law and Order?
Moral decisions are based on on obedience to authority and conforming to the law.
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Post-conventional level? Similar to?
Individuals question the moral values of society and develop their own views anout right and wrong. Morality is internally governed, similar to Piaget's level of autonomous morlity.
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Stage 5: Social contract?
An understanding that laws are part of a social contract between members of society which can change through democratuc procedures.
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Stage 6: Ethical principle?
Decisions about right and wrong are determined by an indeividual's self-chosen ethical principles which are deemed to be more important than the law.
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Method of 1983 study?
58 males aged 10-16 years were intervied every 4 years about the same 9 imaginary dilemmas. Answers were scored using standard scoring system.
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Results and conclusion of 1983 study?
Results: Ppts progressed though stages in predicted order, no skipping, 4% regression. Conclusion: Kohlberg's stages exist and they occur both sequentially and irreversibly.
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Predictive validity?
Santrock found a child's level of moral reasoning could not predict the liklihood of cheating. Kohlberg- 70% ppts at Pre-C level cheated, 15% ppts at Post-C. Shows inconsistent evidence.
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Cross Cultural support?
Shweder found differences in moral perceptions. Hindus saw eating chicken or cutting hair whilst morning as transgression, citizen of chicago was indifferent towards this.
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Consistency in moral reasoning?
Denton and Krebs presented students wiht moral dilemma when sober in academic setting and after consumption of alcohol in a social setting. Moral resoning lower in social setting. Context is a contributing factor.
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Kohlberg vs Gilligan
Gilligan argued theory had an andocentric bias. All ppts in orginal study were male but results were generalised across both genders. Stated boys develop a morality of justice (stage 4) girls, a morality of care (stage 3).
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What study did Gilligan conduct to challenge K-berg?
29 pregnant women (15-33 yrs) were faced with the real life dilemma of abortion. Results- ppts focused on issues of responsibility rather than justice. Conclusion- women are just as sophisticated as men but different.
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Method of Walker Study (1989)?
233 ppts (10-63 yrs) given K-berg moral dilemmas and Gillifan real life dilemmas. Interviewed twice with 2 year interval.
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Results and Conclusion of Walker Study (1989)?
Results: No difference in moral development of males and females, changes were compatible with stage theory. Only a weak link between K-berg's and Gilligan's models. Conclusion: findings do not support Gilligan's criticisms.
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Train Dilemma?
1. Out of control train is heading towards 5 people, can flick switch to kill only 1. 2. Same scenario but standing on a footbridge, option to push a large man in front of train to stop it.
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Results of Train Dilemma?
People would flick switch to kill 1 person but wouldn't push man off footbridge.
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Evaluation of train dilemma in terms of K-berg model
K-berg stated his model was sequential and irreversible, results suggest emotional attatchment influences reasoning, affecting consistency.
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What is the issue with the congnitive load of the moral dilemma technique? How does this link with Piaget?

Back

With younger ppts, it is possible that the task of remembering the detail of the dilemma places to large a demand on memory. Link with the flaw of Piaget which was proven by Feldman.

Card 3

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Heinz Dilemma?

Back

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Card 4

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Method of 1963 study?

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Card 5

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Results and conclusion of 1963 study?

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