Kidneys and Bladder

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What endocrine functions are the kidneys responsible for?
Renin, erythropoetin and calcitriol (vitamin D)
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Describe the position of the kidneys
Retroperitoneal, the right kidney is more cranial than the left (except in pig), the right kidney leaves an impression on the caudate lobe and is associated with the adrenal glands
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What makes up the kidney?
Cortex, medulla, renal pyramid, hilus, renal pelvis, corticomedullary junction and renal sinus
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What is a renal lobe?
The combination of the pyramidal medulla and cortex
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Give an example of a multipyramidal/multilobar kidney
Cow or pig
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Give an example of unipyramidal kidneys
Dog, cat, horse or sheep
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What does unipyramidal kidneys mean?
There aren't obvious divides for lobes
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What are renal papillae?
What the collecting ducts drain into before the renal pelvis
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What are renal calices and which species have them?
They are ducts that connect the different pyramids in the kidney to the renal pelvis and they are found in the cow
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What sympathetic innervation do the kidneys get?
coeliacomesenteric ganglion
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What parasympathetic innervation do the kidneys get?
Vagus nerve
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Why does the ureterovesical junction have a long intramural course?
To prevent urine flowing back up the ureter
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Describe the position of the bladder
Cranial edge of pubis, fills abdomen cranially and ventrally as it fills and is intra abdominal (can be intra-pelvic but this is unusual)
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What ligaments hold the bladder in place?
Lateral vesicle/round ligaments and median vesicle ligaments
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Embryologically, what were the round ligaments and median vesicle ligaments (respectively)?
Umbilical arteries and urachus
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What is the bladder trigone made up of?
Dorsal bladder neck, ureterovesical openings and urethral exit
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What bladder muscles are there?
Detrusor muscle (smooth), internal urethral sphincter (smooth) and external urethral sphincter (striated)
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In order for urination to be initiated what must happen?
There must be an increase in parasympathetic activity and a decrease in sympathetic activity to the micturition centre causing the bladder to contract and the internal urethral sphincter to relax
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What's the name of the nerve that provides sympathetic innervation to the bladder?
Hypogastric nerve
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What's the name of the nerve that provides parasympathetic innervation to the bladder?
The pelvic nerve and the pudendal nerve (from the sacral outflow)
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What does the pelvic nerve innervate specifically?
Bladder
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What does the pudendal nerve innervate specifically?
The internal urethral sphincter
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What are the signs of lower motor neurone bladder and explain?
Large easily expressed bladder due to loss of parasympathetic afferent and efferent so there is no concious control of external sphincter and detrusor muscle can't contract
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What are the signs of upper motor neurone bladder and explain?
Moderately sized difficult to express bladder due to injury in C1 - lumbar region meaning the micturition centre can't relax the external sphincter
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What can cause LMN bladder?
Caudal spinal cord/cauda equina injury eg tail pull
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What can cause UMN bladder?
Spinal cord injury C1-Lumbar region eg intervertebral disc T13-L1 (dog)
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What is the muscle in the urethra called and what type of muscle is it?
Urethralis (smooth and striated)
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How do you reduce urethral spasm?
You need to give the smooth and striated muscle relaxants
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Does general anaesthesia cause muscle relaxation?
Yes
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What clinical procedures/problems involve the bladder?
Cystocentesis, catheterisation, rectal examination, contrast studies and tail pull injuries (cats)
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How do you insert a catheter in a male cat?
Extend the penis caudally and then insert catheter in order to straighten out the urethra flexure
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Is the bladder above or below the uterus?
Below
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the position of the kidneys

Back

Retroperitoneal, the right kidney is more cranial than the left (except in pig), the right kidney leaves an impression on the caudate lobe and is associated with the adrenal glands

Card 3

Front

What makes up the kidney?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a renal lobe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give an example of a multipyramidal/multilobar kidney

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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