Kidney Failure (4.2.1)

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Give reasons why kidney failure may occur.
Diabetes, hypertension, infection, inflammatory diseases.
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What is the treatment for kidney failure?
Dialysis combined with a carefully controlled diet.
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What are the two types of dialysis?
Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
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Describe the process of haemodialysis.
Blood from vein shunted to artery- increases pressure & passed into machine containing artificial dialysis membrane. Heparin added to prevent clotting. Urea diffuses out of blood into dialysis fluid. Pump keeps blood moving through at higher pressure
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When does haemodialysis happen?
Carried out in clinic several times a week and takes several hours each time.
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Why does dialysis fluid flow in the opposite direction to blood?
Creates a counter-current which maintains the concentration gradient for the continuous removal of urea from the blood.
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How can the diet be controlled as part of kidney failure treatment?
Careful fluid regulation- to avoid large changes in blood pressure. Salty foods should be avoided as excess will accumulate & cause osmoregulation problems. Not too much protein at once- excess a.a turned into urea which would then accumulate.
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What is peritoneal dialysis?
Surgeon implants a permanent tube into the abdomen, and dialysis fluid is poured in the tube to fill the space between the abdominal wall and the organs. After several hours, the used solution is drained out with the waste substances in it.
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What are the disadvantages of haemodialysis?
Expensive. Diet must be carefully controlled. Takes lots of time.
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What are the disadvantages of peritoneal dialysis?
Not as efficient. Carries a high risk of infection.
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What happens with a kidney transplant?
If the old kidneys aren't cancerous or likely to cause infection, they are left in place. Kidney can be from a living donor.
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Give 3 advantages of kidney transplants.
Free from time-consuming dialysis. Diet no longer limited. Better quality of life.
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Give 3 disadvantages of kidney transplants.
Need to take immunosuppressant drugs permanently. Major risky operation. Risk of infection due to drugs being taken.
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What is a xenotransplant?
A transplant from a different species.
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What are the potential problems with xenotransplants?
Ethical/religious objections. Possible transfer of viruses across species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the treatment for kidney failure?

Back

Dialysis combined with a carefully controlled diet.

Card 3

Front

What are the two types of dialysis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the process of haemodialysis.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When does haemodialysis happen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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