Geography: Unit 3- Key Words for all 6 topics- edexcel

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Water Scarcity
When water supply falls below 1,000m3 per person per year
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Water Stress
Lack of reliable, cost effective water supplies in a community, region or country. Health and wellbeing are likely to be affected. There is under 1,700m3 of water per person per year
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Blue Water Flow
Visible part of the system, namely water running on the surface and supplying river or traveling underground, recharging aquifers. This water is potentially available and recyclable.
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Helsinki Rules
A 1966 international legal agreement on the fair use of international waterways, such as a river used by two countries.
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Salt Water Incursion
The pollution of coastal groundwater by inflowing seawater. It happens as a result of over-abstraction.
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Abstraction
Removing water from river and groundwater sources, whether for drinking water or for irrigation.
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Water Conflicts
Term used to describe conflict between countries, states or groups over water resources.
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Habitat
The ecological and environmental area a species lives in.
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Biomes
A global-scale ecosystem such as a tropical rainforest or tundra.
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Altitudinal Range
The Range between the lowest and highest altitude in an area.
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Bio Diversity Hotspot
An area containing a huge number of species, a large percentage of which are endemic, they cover less than 2% of the earths surface yet they contain 44% of the worlds plant species and 35% of the animals species.
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Degradation
Loss of quality
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Superpower
A country with dominant global political and economic influence.
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Capitalist
Social and economic system where capital assets are mainly owned and controlled by private persons
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Communist
Form of government where everything is shared equally with all citizens. Everyone earns the same wage regardless of position, no one owns property but the state, and everyone lives at a similar level
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Trade Blocs
A set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association.
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HDI
Devised by the UN and is based on three factors; life expectancy, literacy and per capita GDP. The HDI ranges from 0 (least developed) to 1 (most developed)
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Poverty Cycle
When countries are trapped In a continuing cycle of poverty because of a lack of capital and low incomes
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Terms of Trade
Is the ration between the currencies earned from its exports ( a unit price index is normally used) and the prices of imports.
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Voluntary Aid
Tends to come from NGOs that raise money in developed countries for use on small-scale projects, for example to sponsor a village or build and equip a medical centre.
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ODA
Official development aid– given to support the economic, social and political development of developing countries.
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Fair trade
Growers are given a fair price for their crops by the companies that export them. In addition, farmers are paid a social premium on top of the price, and extra money is invested in community development projects.
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MDG
Millennium Development Goals- provide a vital framework for monitoring the development gap and measuring any progress towards reducing it. The UN issues yearly reports on progress towards achieving these targets.
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Industrial Property
Intangible property such as inventions, industrial designs, trademarks, which is afforded protection under national and international intellectual property laws
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Appropriate technologies
Technology that is adapted to suit local conditions; it can be high– or—low tech.
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Intermediate technologies
Low– technology solutions which are often cheap, easy to build and maintain. Adaptable to local conditions and labour intensive. Many are environmentally friendly.
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Geo-engineering
Planetary-scale technologies designed to alter the properties of earth to make it more habitable.
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Desertification
Land turning to desert, often involving increased aridity and vegetation loss, usually as a result of human mismanagement.
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NGOs
Humanitarian bodies and charities– raise awareness of concerns and gives aid and practical assistance to developing countries. Non– biased assistance to development projects or relief programmes.
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IGOs
International organisations– a group or organisation made up of different members of states such as the UN or the EU.
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Globalisation
The economic process of increased global connectedness and interdependence resulting from rapid increase in trade, financial flows, global communication and migration.
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Neo Colonialism
Refers to a form of indirect control over developing countries, most of them former colonies.
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Colonialism
The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
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Soft Power
A persuasive approach to international relations, typically involving the use of economic or cultural influence.
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Hard Power
A coercive approach to international political relations, exp. one that involves the use of military power.
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Cultural Hegemony
Cultural hegemony is the philosophic and sociological concept, originated by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that a culturally-diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes. It is the dominance of one social group ov
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Trans boundary
An issue or problem which crosses international boarders
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Development Gap
The widening income and prosperity gap between the global haves of the developed world and the have not's of the developing world
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Grass Roots
The common or ordinary people, especially as contrasted with the leadership or elite of a political party, social organization
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Bottom up approach
A management and problem– solving which comes from within a community, often using local skills and resources
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Top down approach
Management solutions and other measures imposed from above by national governments
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Tied Aid
Aid that is given under the condition that part or all of it must be used to purchase goods from the country providing the aid.
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Bi Lateral Aid
Involves a one-to-one relationship between donor and recipient country.
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Bi Polar World
Where two opposing superpowers exist.
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Multi Polar World
A world where three or more superpowers exist.
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TNC
Transnational corporations– provide FDI for investment in many countries, drive economic globalisation and transfer of technology, provide employment .
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R&D
Research and development– a branch of industry focused on the development of innovation and new technologies.
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Leap Frogging
The adoption of new technologies by a developing economy without it having to use a more basic tech first.
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Brandt Line
The divide between the wealthy ‘north’ mainly in the northern hemisphere, and the poor ‘south’ mainly in the southern hemisphere.
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NIC
Newly industrialised countries-this describes countries which developed manufacturing industries on the late twentieth century, including Malaysia and Taiwan
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RIC
Recently industrialising country. The second generation and industrialising countries, following on from the NICs. Examples include Indonesia and Mexico.
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Renewable energy
Energy source capable of natural regeneration on a human time scale
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Non-renewable energy
Energy source that is finite on a human time scale
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Energy security
when you have access to reliable and affordable energy sources
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Energy insecurity
when you do not have access to a relliable and affordable energy source and rely on other countries or places for energy sources
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Energy Deficit
When a country that does not produce enough energy to meet the demands of its population.
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Energy Pathways
the flows of energy from the producer to the consumer
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Energy policy
the manner in which a given entity has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption.
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Water vulnerable
By 2025 it is estimated that nearly 50% of the world’s population will be water vulnerable where they have access to under 2,500m3 per person per year
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Water insecurity
Not having access to sufficient, safe (clean) water
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Over-abstraction
abstracted at a faster rate than it can be replenished
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Water Transfers
involve the diversion of water from one drainage basin to another either by diverting the river itself or by constructing a large canal to carry available water from the area of surplus to the area of deficit.
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Privatisation of Water
To transfer the ownership of the water from the public sector to private ownership and operation
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Technology
Tool, systems, processes and structures invented by humans which allows them to control their environment and satisfy their needs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Lack of reliable, cost effective water supplies in a community, region or country. Health and wellbeing are likely to be affected. There is under 1,700m3 of water per person per year

Back

Water Stress

Card 3

Front

Visible part of the system, namely water running on the surface and supplying river or traveling underground, recharging aquifers. This water is potentially available and recyclable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A 1966 international legal agreement on the fair use of international waterways, such as a river used by two countries.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The pollution of coastal groundwater by inflowing seawater. It happens as a result of over-abstraction.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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