key words for research methods 1

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hypothesis
a testable statement about the relationship between two variable. In an experiment these variables are called the independent variable (IV) and the dependant variable (DV).
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variable
a factor or thing that can change - it varies
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independent variable (IV)
the variable that the researcher alters or manipulate to look for an effect on another variable. This variable produces the two conditions of the study
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experiment
the method of research in which all variables other than the independent variable and the dependent variable are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify the a cause-and-effect relationship between the IV and the DV
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condition
an experiment is usually organised so there are two trials, after which the performances of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment
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participant
a person who is selected to take part in a study
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order effect
this occurs when the participants performance in the first experiment affects their performance in the second experiment because they have already done the first one. They may do better because of practice or worse because of tiredness.
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participant variables
the differences between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment nut uses an independent group design
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standardised procedures
a set order of carrying out a study that is applied to participants when necessary
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random allocation
a procedure for putting participants into conditions by chance
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counterbalancing
a procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiments
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instructions
the written (or verbal) infromation given to participants during the experiment
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randomisation
using chance to produce an order for a procedure
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ecological validity
the results of the investigation can be said to apply to real-life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world
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objectivity
not affected by personal biases
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sample
the small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied
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target population
the large group of people the researcher wishes to study
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representative
the sample of participants is made up of people who have the same charactoristics and abilities as the target population
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generalised
the results from the sample can be said to apply to the target population
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random sample
every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
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oppertunity sample
people who are the members of the target population and are available and willing to take part
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systematic sample
every 'nth' memeber of the target population is selected for the sample
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stratified sampling
to obtain this type of sample, the different subgroups of the target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their number in the target population
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raw data
the scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarised
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mean
a statistic calculated by adding all the scores in a set of values and dividing the total by the number of values in the set
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median
the middle value in a set of values when the values have been set in ascending order
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range
the difference between the lowest and highest value in a set of values
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anomalous result
an extremely low or high result that does not match the other results in a set of scores
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percentage
a proportion expressed as a fraction of 100
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ethical issues
points of concern about what is morraly right
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a factor or thing that can change - it varies

Back

variable

Card 3

Front

the variable that the researcher alters or manipulate to look for an effect on another variable. This variable produces the two conditions of the study

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the method of research in which all variables other than the independent variable and the dependent variable are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify the a cause-and-effect relationship between the IV and the DV

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

an experiment is usually organised so there are two trials, after which the performances of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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