Key Words and Definitions

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  • Created by: cyan
  • Created on: 06-06-13 14:01
These are any kind of fuel made from living things, or from the waste they produce.
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A gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, in the absence of oxygen.
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Carbon Footprint
A measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce.
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Carrying capacity
The maximum number of people (or plants or animals) who can be supported in a given area.
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Compact community
A community where the best use of space is made.
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Congestion charge
A fee for motorists travelling within the city. The main aims are to reduce traffic congestion, and to raise funds for investment in the city’s transport systems.
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Counter urbanisation
When people leave towns and cities to live in the countryside.
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Deprived areas
An area, usually in a developed nation, where there is high unemployment and crime and poor health and education services and housing.
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The area of land and sea that supplies all of the ‘stuff’ that you need to live. It is about 6 football pitches!
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Genetic modification
Any alternation of genetic material of an organism by means that could not occur naturally.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services in a nation measured over a year.
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Human Development Index
A standard means of measuring human development.
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Where a mainly agricultural society develops and begins to depend on manufacturing industries.
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Integrated transport policy
A government policy aimed at improving and integrating public transport systems, and of making cars and lorries more environmentally acceptable and more efficient.
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National park
An area that is protected from human exploitation and occupation.
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Newly industrialised countries (NIC)
Countries which were recently less developed but where industrialisation has happened quickly.
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Population decline
Where the number of live births is less than the number of deaths.
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Societies where service and high technology are dominant and where heavy manufacturing industries are less important.
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Internal migration
The movement of people within a country, in search of seasonal or permanent work or for social reasons.
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A many centred, multi-city urban area of more than 10 million people.
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When a job is given to a company overseas that was formerly done at home. Often this company is in a LEDC.
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Population balance
Where births are deaths are almost equal.
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Population increase
Where the number of live births exceeds deaths.
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The situation before the industrial revolution. It can be used to describe poor countries which are mainly agricultural.
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Primary industry
Where people extract raw materials from the land and sea, for example, fishing and farming.
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When people who used to live in the city and then moved out to the country or to a suburb, move back to live in the city.
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Secondary industry
Where people make, or manufacture, products, for example, turning iron into steel.
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Tertiary industry
Where people are employed in providing a service. For example, the health service (doctors, nurses, dentists).
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Transnational companies
These are companies which operate in more than one country.
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Urban heat island
Where temperatures in cities are much higher (up to 4°C) than the surrounding countryside because of heat released from buildings, including factories and offices and from air pollution.
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Quaternary industry
Where people are employed in industries providing information and expert help. For example, IT consultants.
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Rural idyll
When people move to the countryside because they think it will offer them a better quality of life and lower crime.
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Rural-urban migration
The movement of people from the countryside to the cities, normally to escape poverty and to search for work.
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Subsistence farming
Where farmers grow food to feed their families, rather than to sell.
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When people leave cities and towns to live in suburbs.
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Birth rate
The number of babies born alive for every 1000 people per year.
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Death rate
The number of people who die for every 1000 people in one year.
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Natural increase
The number of people added to, or lost from the population for every 1000 people in one year.
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Fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman in her lifetime.
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Replacement level
The average number of children required to be born to a woman to ensure that the population remains stable.
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Ageing population
A country with a high percentage of people over 65 years old.
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Youthful population
A country with a high percentage of people under the age of 15.
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Pro-natalist policy
Includes incentives, such as financial payments, to encourage people to have more children.
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Anti-natalist policy
Policies to encourage people to have fewer children, for example by providing free state education for having only one child.
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Food insecurity
When it is difficult to obtain sufficient food. This can range from hunger through to full scale famine.
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A naturally occurring substance (eg water, minerals) which can be used in its own right, or made into something else.
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Malthus theory
Population grew exponentially but food production grew arithmetically. ‘Natural checks’ reduces the population.
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Boserup theory
Population growth controls farming methods. People would invent solutions (technology) to improve food production.
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Renewable resources
These will never run out and can be used over and over again eg wind and solar power.
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Non-renewable resources
These are being used up and cannot be replaced, such as coal and oil.
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Sustainable resources
These are meeting the needs of people now, without preventing future generations from meeting their needs.
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Black gold
Another name for oil, because it is such a valuable resource.
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Finite resources
One that is limited or restricted.
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Peak oil
The point at which oil production reaches its maximum level and then declines.
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Sustainable development
That which ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’.
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Where wealthier people move into the area and carry out house improvements. This improves the quality of local housing.
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Social segregation
Where richer people live in certain areas and less well off families in others.
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Green belts
An area of open land around a city, which is protected from development.
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Economic sustainability
Means allowing people to have access to a reliable income.
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Social sustainability
Means allowing people to have a reasonable quality of life with opportunities to achieve their potential.
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Environmental sustainability
What we need to consume in order to protect the Earth’s environment.
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Greenfield sites
An area of land that has not previously been built on.
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Brownfield sites
An area of land that has been built on before and is suitable for redevelopment.
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Refers to the decline in manufacturing industry and the corresponding growth of tertiary and quaternary industries.
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Informal economy
An economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not part of the country’s GDP eg shoe shiners.
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The increase in the percentage of people living in towns and cities.
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Farm diversification
Where farmers create more variety in their business so they are not relying on farming only eg opening a farm shop or campsite.
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Post production
How the countryside should be used as farming declines. It refers to the diversification of economic activities in rural areas.
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A form of tourism designed to reduce the negative aspects of tourism on the environment.
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Refers to the basic services needed for development – water, roads, power supplies.
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Taking water from areas that have it to areas that do not.
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Right to Buy
Scheme to give people who have been tenants of a council property for more than two years, the right to purchase that property at a discounted rate.
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Old economy
Production of manufactured goods, locally or regionally based, industry attracted to raw materials, cheap land, good transport.
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New economy
Production of knowledge, ideas and services. Globally based and interconnected. Human resources important.
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Refers to growth and the spread of ideas on a global or worldwide scale.
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Knowledge-based economy
Depends on jobs such as research and development and tend to rely on ICT/computers.
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Converting to the customs and ideas of Western civilisation.
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As a result of WiFi and laptops, people can work anywhere, including at home. This is often linked to a more rural environment.
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Flexible working patterns
Include flexitime, term-time working, home-working, job-share and part time working.
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‘Green’ employment sector
Refers to jobs which attempt to improve air and water quality, to recycle and reduce waste, to promote conservation and green tourism.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




A gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, in the absence of oxygen.

Card 3


Carbon Footprint


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Carrying capacity


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Compact community


Preview of the front of card 5
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