Key Words and Definitions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: cyan
  • Created on: 06-06-13 14:01
Biofuels
These are any kind of fuel made from living things, or from the waste they produce.
1 of 80
Biogas
A gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, in the absence of oxygen.
2 of 80
Carbon Footprint
A measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce.
3 of 80
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of people (or plants or animals) who can be supported in a given area.
4 of 80
Compact community
A community where the best use of space is made.
5 of 80
Congestion charge
A fee for motorists travelling within the city. The main aims are to reduce traffic congestion, and to raise funds for investment in the city’s transport systems.
6 of 80
Counter urbanisation
When people leave towns and cities to live in the countryside.
7 of 80
Deprived areas
An area, usually in a developed nation, where there is high unemployment and crime and poor health and education services and housing.
8 of 80
Eco-footprint
The area of land and sea that supplies all of the ‘stuff’ that you need to live. It is about 6 football pitches!
9 of 80
Genetic modification
Any alternation of genetic material of an organism by means that could not occur naturally.
10 of 80
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services in a nation measured over a year.
11 of 80
Human Development Index
A standard means of measuring human development.
12 of 80
Industrialisation
Where a mainly agricultural society develops and begins to depend on manufacturing industries.
13 of 80
Integrated transport policy
A government policy aimed at improving and integrating public transport systems, and of making cars and lorries more environmentally acceptable and more efficient.
14 of 80
National park
An area that is protected from human exploitation and occupation.
15 of 80
Newly industrialised countries (NIC)
Countries which were recently less developed but where industrialisation has happened quickly.
16 of 80
Population decline
Where the number of live births is less than the number of deaths.
17 of 80
Post-industrial
Societies where service and high technology are dominant and where heavy manufacturing industries are less important.
18 of 80
Internal migration
The movement of people within a country, in search of seasonal or permanent work or for social reasons.
19 of 80
Mega-city
A many centred, multi-city urban area of more than 10 million people.
20 of 80
outsourcing
When a job is given to a company overseas that was formerly done at home. Often this company is in a LEDC.
21 of 80
Population balance
Where births are deaths are almost equal.
22 of 80
Population increase
Where the number of live births exceeds deaths.
23 of 80
Pre-industrial
The situation before the industrial revolution. It can be used to describe poor countries which are mainly agricultural.
24 of 80
Primary industry
Where people extract raw materials from the land and sea, for example, fishing and farming.
25 of 80
Re-urbanisation
When people who used to live in the city and then moved out to the country or to a suburb, move back to live in the city.
26 of 80
Secondary industry
Where people make, or manufacture, products, for example, turning iron into steel.
27 of 80
Tertiary industry
Where people are employed in providing a service. For example, the health service (doctors, nurses, dentists).
28 of 80
Transnational companies
These are companies which operate in more than one country.
29 of 80
Urban heat island
Where temperatures in cities are much higher (up to 4°C) than the surrounding countryside because of heat released from buildings, including factories and offices and from air pollution.
30 of 80
Quaternary industry
Where people are employed in industries providing information and expert help. For example, IT consultants.
31 of 80
Rural idyll
When people move to the countryside because they think it will offer them a better quality of life and lower crime.
32 of 80
Rural-urban migration
The movement of people from the countryside to the cities, normally to escape poverty and to search for work.
33 of 80
Subsistence farming
Where farmers grow food to feed their families, rather than to sell.
34 of 80
suburbanisation
When people leave cities and towns to live in suburbs.
35 of 80
Birth rate
The number of babies born alive for every 1000 people per year.
36 of 80
Death rate
The number of people who die for every 1000 people in one year.
37 of 80
Natural increase
The number of people added to, or lost from the population for every 1000 people in one year.
38 of 80
Fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman in her lifetime.
39 of 80
Replacement level
The average number of children required to be born to a woman to ensure that the population remains stable.
40 of 80
Ageing population
A country with a high percentage of people over 65 years old.
41 of 80
Youthful population
A country with a high percentage of people under the age of 15.
42 of 80
Pro-natalist policy
Includes incentives, such as financial payments, to encourage people to have more children.
43 of 80
Anti-natalist policy
Policies to encourage people to have fewer children, for example by providing free state education for having only one child.
44 of 80
Food insecurity
When it is difficult to obtain sufficient food. This can range from hunger through to full scale famine.
45 of 80
Resource
A naturally occurring substance (eg water, minerals) which can be used in its own right, or made into something else.
46 of 80
Malthus theory
Population grew exponentially but food production grew arithmetically. ‘Natural checks’ reduces the population.
47 of 80
Boserup theory
Population growth controls farming methods. People would invent solutions (technology) to improve food production.
48 of 80
Renewable resources
These will never run out and can be used over and over again eg wind and solar power.
49 of 80
Non-renewable resources
These are being used up and cannot be replaced, such as coal and oil.
50 of 80
Sustainable resources
These are meeting the needs of people now, without preventing future generations from meeting their needs.
51 of 80
Black gold
Another name for oil, because it is such a valuable resource.
52 of 80
Finite resources
One that is limited or restricted.
53 of 80
Peak oil
The point at which oil production reaches its maximum level and then declines.
54 of 80
Sustainable development
That which ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’.
55 of 80
Gentrification
Where wealthier people move into the area and carry out house improvements. This improves the quality of local housing.
56 of 80
Social segregation
Where richer people live in certain areas and less well off families in others.
57 of 80
Green belts
An area of open land around a city, which is protected from development.
58 of 80
Economic sustainability
Means allowing people to have access to a reliable income.
59 of 80
Social sustainability
Means allowing people to have a reasonable quality of life with opportunities to achieve their potential.
60 of 80
Environmental sustainability
What we need to consume in order to protect the Earth’s environment.
61 of 80
Greenfield sites
An area of land that has not previously been built on.
62 of 80
Brownfield sites
An area of land that has been built on before and is suitable for redevelopment.
63 of 80
Deindustrialisation
Refers to the decline in manufacturing industry and the corresponding growth of tertiary and quaternary industries.
64 of 80
Informal economy
An economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not part of the country’s GDP eg shoe shiners.
65 of 80
Urbanisation
The increase in the percentage of people living in towns and cities.
66 of 80
Farm diversification
Where farmers create more variety in their business so they are not relying on farming only eg opening a farm shop or campsite.
67 of 80
Post production
How the countryside should be used as farming declines. It refers to the diversification of economic activities in rural areas.
68 of 80
Eco-tourism
A form of tourism designed to reduce the negative aspects of tourism on the environment.
69 of 80
Infrastructure
Refers to the basic services needed for development – water, roads, power supplies.
70 of 80
Irrigation
Taking water from areas that have it to areas that do not.
71 of 80
Right to Buy
Scheme to give people who have been tenants of a council property for more than two years, the right to purchase that property at a discounted rate.
72 of 80
Old economy
Production of manufactured goods, locally or regionally based, industry attracted to raw materials, cheap land, good transport.
73 of 80
New economy
Production of knowledge, ideas and services. Globally based and interconnected. Human resources important.
74 of 80
Globalisation
Refers to growth and the spread of ideas on a global or worldwide scale.
75 of 80
Knowledge-based economy
Depends on jobs such as research and development and tend to rely on ICT/computers.
76 of 80
Westernisation
Converting to the customs and ideas of Western civilisation.
77 of 80
Teleworking
As a result of WiFi and laptops, people can work anywhere, including at home. This is often linked to a more rural environment.
78 of 80
Flexible working patterns
Include flexitime, term-time working, home-working, job-share and part time working.
79 of 80
‘Green’ employment sector
Refers to jobs which attempt to improve air and water quality, to recycle and reduce waste, to promote conservation and green tourism.
80 of 80

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Biogas

Back

A gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, in the absence of oxygen.

Card 3

Front

Carbon Footprint

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Carrying capacity

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Compact community

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »