Key Words Unit 3 AQA Environmental Studies

Key Words for Unit 3- Pollution and Energy

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  • Created by: KatieL
  • Created on: 02-06-14 13:28
Primary Fuel
An energy source that can be harnessed from the environment e.g. coal
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Secondary Fuel
An energy source that is produced by converting a primary fuel e.g. hydrogen
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Renewable Resources
Resources that are reformed relatively quickly
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Electrolysis
The splitting of molecules using electricity
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Non-renewable Resource
A resource that is renewed so slowly that the amount available is effectively finite
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Deplete
To reduce the amount of a resource that is avaliable
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Energy Density
The amount of energy in a particular mass of fuel or that can be harnessed by a particular mass of equiptment
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Intermittent
A process or resource that is not constantly available e.g. wind, solar
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Reliable
An energy source where its availability can be predicted, although is not always constantly available e.g. oil, tidal
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Aesthetic
The issue of appearance of things e.g. pylons on landscapes
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Viscosity
A measure of the ease with which a fluid can flow
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Viscous
A fluid which cannot easily flow
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Fissile Fuel
A fuel where the nuclei of the atoms can be split of the atoms can be split by neutron bombardment, releasing large amount of energy
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Isotope
A variety of an element where the number of neutrons is different
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Finite Resource
A resource where the amount is fixed, e.g. uranium
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Photothermal
A system which converts light into heat
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Kinetic energy
The energy of movement
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Barrage
A dam built across an estuary to generate tidal power
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Photovoltaic
A system which converts light into electricity
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Heliostat
A device that tracks the sun so the angle of incident sunlight stays the same
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Parabolic Reflector
A mirror system that reflects incoming light onto a single point
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Potential Gravitational Energy
The energy of raised position.
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Coppiced Woodland
Woodland where the trees are cut to the ground every 3 to 15 years. Wood collected can be used as a biofuel
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Fuel Cell
An electrochemical device that produces electricity from the chemical reaction between two substances
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Peak Shaving
The process of storing surplus energy to satisfy a later demand
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Half-life
The time it takes for half a material to be lost
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Mobility
A measure of the ease of movement of a substance
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Toxicity
A measure of how poisonous a substance is
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Deoxygenation
The process of oxygen removal
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Specificity
A measure of the differing toxicities of a substance on different organisms
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Pyrethroids
A branch of insecticides derived from chrysanthemums
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Persistence
A measure of the rate at which a substance breaks down
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Organochlorides
Synthetic organic substances that include chlorine e.g. DDT
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Degredation
The breakdown of a substance
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Biodegredation
The breakdown of a substance by a living organism e.g. bacteria
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Biodegradability
The ease of which a substance is broken down by a living organism
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Solubility
The ability for a substance to separate in a liquid
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Liposoluble
The ability of a substance to dissolve in oils and fats
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Bioaccumulation
The increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue
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Biomagnification
The increase in concentration of a substance along a food chain
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Synergism
The process where the presence of two materials produces a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects e.g. zinc and cadmium
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Mutagen
A substance that can cause changes in DNA structure, e.g. ionising radiation
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Carcinogen
A substance that can cause cancers
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Teratogen
A substance which causes non-inherited birth abnormality, usually by interfeing with gene process in the developing foetus or embryo
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Primary Pollutant
A pollutant released by human activities
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Secondary Pollutant
A pollutant produced by chemical reactions of primary pollutants
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Photochemical Smog
An atmospheric pollution event caused by the interaction of pollutants (mostly from vehicles) and a temperature inversion
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Diffuse Source
An effluent emission that comes from many sources
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pH
A measure of acidity, the lower the number the more acidic
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Biotic Index
A measure of pollution based on the presence, abundance, and state of health of an organism
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Temperature Inversion
A situation in the troposphere where the temperature is lower than normal so that warm air lives above cold air (see pg 178 in textbook for an image)
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Lapse Rate Diagram
A graph to show how temperature changes with altitude
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Clean Air Act, 1956
UK legislation to control smoke pollution
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Smokeless Zone
An urban area where smoke emissions are restricted
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Smoke Control Order
The restriction of smoke emissions in an urban area
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Landfill Tax
A tax to discourage the disposal of waste in landfill sites
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Flue Gas Desulphurisation
(FGD) The process that removes oxides of sulphur from gaseous effluents
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Catalytic Converters
A device which is fitted to vehicle exhausts to remove pollutants such as CO, NOx and unburnt hudrocarbons
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Urea Spray
A method of reducing NOx emissions
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Electrostatic Precipiator/ Cyclone Separator/ Scrubber
Types of equipment used to remove suspended particles in gaseous effluent. (see pg 182 in textbook for images)
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Point Source
A small number of sources of pollutant, easy to identify
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Organophosphates
A branch of insecticides e.g. parathion
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Systematic Pesticide
A pesticide that is absorbed and transported around a plant in the sap
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Inorganic Nutrients
Plant nutrients e.g. nitrates
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Oligotrophic
A water body with a low nutrient level
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Eutrophic
A water body with a high nutrient level
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Organic Nutrients
High energy nutrients from plant or animal material e.g. carbohydrates
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Primary Sewage Treatment
The removal of organic solids from the fluids
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Secondary Sewage Treatment
The breakdown of the remaining organic matter in the fluids
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Tertiary Sewage Treatment
The final stage in sewage treatment, e.g. removal of phosphates
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Incineration
The break down of waste by burning it
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BOD
Biological or Biochemical Oxygen Demand
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Enzyme Inhibitor
A substance that prevents an enzyme from functioning
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Resonant Frequency
The frequency at which an object naturally vibrates
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Acoustic Fatigue
Stress cracking of a material caused by repetitive vibrations induced by sound
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Decibel (dB)
Unit of sound
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dB (A)
Decibel scale modified to weight the frequencies at which the human ear is most senstive
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L10 18H
A measure of noise pollution used to monitor road traffic noise
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Traffic Noise Index
(TNI) A measure of road traffic noise pollution
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Noise and Number Index
(NNI) A measure of noise pollution from aircraft and around airports
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Inverse Square Law
The mathematical relationship where increasing distance from the source of radiation. 1/distance^2
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Critical Pathway Analysis
(CPA) The prediction of of the routes that an effluent will take in the environment to assess pollution risk
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Critical Group Monitoring
A method of monitoring radioactive discharges. If the most at risk groups are safe, then so are other groups
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Vitrification
The process of encapsulating high level radioactive waste in solid glass
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Encapsulation
Sealing waste in a solid material
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Secondary Fuel

Back

An energy source that is produced by converting a primary fuel e.g. hydrogen

Card 3

Front

Renewable Resources

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Electrolysis

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Non-renewable Resource

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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