Key Terms Language Change

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Standardisation
Making all variations of language conform to the standard language
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Mixed - Mode
Features of printed text combined with features expected in conversation
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Diachronic Change
Refers to the study of historical language change occuring over a span of time
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Synchronic Change
Refers to an approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the social context
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Lexicon
The vocabulary of a language
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Political Correctness
Words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive
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Overt Prestige
The status a speaker gains from using the most official and standard form of a language. For example: Received Pronunciation and Standard English are accepted as the most prestigious English accent and dialect
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Covert Prestige
The status a speaker gains who choose not to adopt a standard dialect given from a particular group in society
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Obsolete
No longer having any use
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Drift
A process of linguistic change over a period of time
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Euphemism
Inoffensive words or phrases used to suggest something less unpleasant. For example: Passed away instead of Died
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Idiom
A speech form or an expression of a given language that is perculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements. For example: Talking to a brick wall
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Archaism
An old word or phrase no longer in general spoken or written use
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Ligature
The linking of two graphemes, once common practice in printing but now becoming less common
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Non-Anglicised Loan Word
A borrowed word from another language that has not been altered from its original form
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Angelicised Loan Word
A borrowed word from another language that has been altered in its pronunciation or spelling
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Proclitic Contraction
Where a sperate word become part of the word following it. For Example: 'Tis is a shortening of it is
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Enclitic Contraction
Where a seperate word becomes part of the word before it. For Example: It's is a shortening of it is
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Emoticons
An online means of showing facial expressions. For Example: :)
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Dummy Auxiliary
The verb "do" which is used to form questions and negatives or to add emphasis in a statement
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Subjunctive
A grammatical mood
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Omission
The leaving out of a phoneme in a group of phonemes clustered together
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Assimilation
The influence exercised by one sound upon the articulation of another, so that sounds become more alike
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Informalisation
The way language is becoming increasingly formal in most areas of society
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Received Pronunciation
The prestige form of English pronunciation, sometimes considered as the "accent" of Standard English
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Divergence
When a persons speech pattern becomes more individualised and less like those of the other person in conversation
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Eye Dialect
A way of spelling words that suggest a regional or social way of talking
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Renaissance
From the french for rebirth. It refers to a cultural movement in European history from middle of the 14th to the 17th century which looked back to the classical age for its inspiration
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Fascicle
One of the divisions of a book published in parts
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Descriptivism
An attitude to language use that seeks to describe it without making value judgements
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Prescriptivism
An attitude to language use that makes judgements about what is right and wrong and holds language up to an ideal standard that should be maintained
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Colloquialisation
Where writing uses language more typically seen in spoken registers
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Economisation
Where certain written genres have resulted in compressed styles of writing in order to communicate information efficiently snd sparingly
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Features of printed text combined with features expected in conversation

Back

Mixed - Mode

Card 3

Front

Refers to the study of historical language change occuring over a span of time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Refers to an approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the social context

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The vocabulary of a language

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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