Key Terms Chemistry Unit 1

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  • Created by: Faith
  • Created on: 07-02-14 02:05
Isotope
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons
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Atomic (proton) number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Mass (nucleon) number
Number of particles (protons & neutrons) in the nucleus
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Ion
Positively or negatively charged atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion)
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Relative Isotopic Mass
Mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 on a scale where Carbon-12 has a mass of 12g
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Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)
Weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 of a scale where Carbon-12 has a mass of 12g
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Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)
Weighted mean mass of an atom of a molecule compared with 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 on a scale where Carbon-12 has a mass of 12g
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Relative Formula Mass
Weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with 1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom on a scale where Carbon-12 has a mass of 12g
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Avogadro Constant
The number of atoms per mole of a substance (6.022 x10^23)
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Mole
The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the Carbon-12 isiotope
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Molar Mass (Mr)
The mass per mole of a substance
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Empirical Formula
The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Molecule
A small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
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Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Molar Volume
Volume per mole of a gas ( dm^3/mol). At RTP, molar volume is always 24.
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Concentration
The amount of solute (mol) dissolved in 1dm^3 of solution
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Standard Solution
A solution of a known concentration
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Species
Any type of particle that takes place in a chemical reaction
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Stoichiometry
The molar relationship between relative quantaties of substance taking part in a reaction
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Acid
A species that is a proton donor
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Base
A species that is a proton acceptor
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Alkali
A base that dissolves in water to form hydroxide ions
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Salt
Any chemical compound formed from an acid when H+ is replaced by a metal or other positive ion
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Cation
Positively charged ion
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Anion
Negatively charged ion
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Hydrated
Crystalline compound containing water molecules
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Anhydrous
A substance that contains no water molecules
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Water of crystallisation
Water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
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Oxidation number
A measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons OR increase in oxidation number
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Reduction
Gain of electrons OR decrease in oxidation number
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Redox
A reaction i which both reduction and oxidation take place
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Reducing agent
A reagent that reduces (adds electrons to) another species
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Oxidising agent
A reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species
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Disproportionation
When an element is both reduced and oxidised
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Formula to calculate number of moles
1. Concentration x volume, 2. Mass/Relative Molecular Mass, 3. Volume/Molar Volume
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Uncertainty principle
It is impossible to know the exact position and momentum of an electron at the same time
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Covalent bond
Shared pair of electrons
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Dative covalent bond
A dipolar bond in which the shared eletron pair derive from the same atom
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Hydrogen bond
strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen atom and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (Oxygen, Fluorine or Nitrogen)
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Metallic bond
Electrostatic forces between the positive nucleus of atoms and the negatively charged sea of delocalised electrons
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Ionic bond
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Bond angle of Pyramidal
107 due to its lone pair having a higher repulsion than bond pairs e.g. NH3
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Non-linear
104.5 due to its lone pair having a higher repulsion than bond pairs e.g. H2O
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Linear
180 e.g. CO2
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Octahedral
90 e.g. SF8
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Tetrahedral
109.5 e.g. CH4
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Trigonal Pyramidal
120 e.g. BH3
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Van der Waals
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Permanent dipole
Small charge difference across a bond that results from a different in negativity values
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Polar covalent
A bond which has a permanent dipole
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Group
Vertical column in the Periodic Table; elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and the same number of outer-shell electrons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Back

Atomic (proton) number

Card 3

Front

Number of particles (protons & neutrons) in the nucleus

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Positively or negatively charged atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 on a scale where Carbon-12 has a mass of 12g

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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