Key Terms

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Argument
An attempt persuade a reader (or listener) to accept something. An argument must have a conclusion and at least one reason.
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Conclusion
The concusion of an argument is a statement of something that the writer (or speaker) wants the reader (or listener) to accept.
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Reason
A statement that aims to persuade a reader to accept a conclsion.
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Claim
A statement or judgement that can be challenged.
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Argument indicator
A word oor short phrase that helps the reader to idenitify the elements of an argument.
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Counter-argument
An additional that is against, or counter to, what the conclusion is trying to establish. The writer normally presents the counter-argument in ordder to dismiss it.
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Counter-assertion
If the writer presents a reason that would support an opponent's argument, rather than a counter-argument, then the writer is making a counter-assertion/claim.
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Hypothetical claim
A claim in the form of 'If this ... then that ...'. Hypothetical indicator words and phrases include: if, provided that, on condition that, given that ... then ...
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Hypothetical reasoning
This looks at the consequences that might occur if something were the case.
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Assumption
This is a missing reason in an argument. The writer accepts the assumption, but has not stated it. The assumption is essential for the conclusion to be drawn.
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Reverse test
A strategy for checking whether an assumption is needed by an argument, by asking yourself if the argument would work with the assumption reversed.
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Fact
Information that can be verified and that is held to be true.
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Factual claim
A statement or judgement based on information that can be verified and that is held to be true.
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Evidence
Something that is used to develop or support a reason. Evidence is often in the form of numerical data, an estimate or a factual claim.
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Example
Something which is used as evidence because it is a characteritic of the same kind of things or because it can serve to illustrate a principle.
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Credibilty
Whether someone's claims or evidence can be believed.
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Plausibilty
Whether or not a claim or piece of evidence is reasonble.
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Witness
A person who saw (or heard) an event.
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Source
A person, organisation, or document providing information or evidence.
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Witness statement
A report by someone ho has actually seen (or heard) an event.
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Criteria
Standards, measures, or benchmarks, aginst which something can be measured.
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Ability to percieve
A source's ability to use any of the five senses to access an event or sitution.
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Eye-witness
Someone who provides evidence based on first-hand experience.
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Hearsay
Evidence based on secondhand information from another source, who may have interupreted it.
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Corroboration
Confirmation of, or suppport for, evidence given by one source by another source.
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Inconsistency
When evidence or an argument contains two claims which cannot both be correct at the same time.
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Bias
Tendenacy to be prejudiced against, or in favour of, certain beliefs, or people who engage in articular activites. This gives a motive/subconcious reason to lie, misrepresent or distort information/evidence.
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Neutrality
being impartial; having no reason to favour either side in a dispute or difference of opinion.
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Vested interest
Personal interest, usually financial, in a state of affairs or in an organnisation leading to an expectation of personal gain from a favourable outcome.
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Motive
Factor that may cause a person to act in a particular way.
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Expertise
Skills, experience and training that give someone specialist knowledge and judgement.
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Reputation
What is generally said or believed about the character of a person or an organiisation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The concusion of an argument is a statement of something that the writer (or speaker) wants the reader (or listener) to accept.

Back

Conclusion

Card 3

Front

A statement that aims to persuade a reader to accept a conclsion.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A statement or judgement that can be challenged.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A word oor short phrase that helps the reader to idenitify the elements of an argument.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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