Psychological Terminology

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Anxiety
A feeling of worry, nervousness or unease.
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Attitude
A way of thinking, reflected in a person's behaviour.
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Behaviourism
An approach that emphasises observable, measurable behaviour.
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Bias
Being prejudice against something in a way for it to be unfair.
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Case Study
A record of research that is analysed to illustrate a theory.
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Classical Conditioning
A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired.
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Cognitive Psychology
An approach that emphasises internal mental processes.
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Confederate
An actor part of an experiment who is aware of the aims.
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Conformity
Type of social influence involving a change of behaviour
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Confounding Variable
A stimulus introduced that effects a participants behaviour.
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Conservation
Physical properties do not change when nothing is added/taken away even if appearances change.
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Critical Period
Time in which someone's development is believed to be most readily required.
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Cross-cultural research
Exploring psychological phenomena across more than one culture.
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Cross-sectional Study
A class of research methods that involve observation of a representative subject.
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Consent
Permission given for something to happen or an agreement.
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Control Group
A scientific group that is seperated from the rest of the study so the IV cannot influence them.
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Correlation
Interdependence of variable quantities.
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Counter-balancing
A type of experimental design where all possible orders of presenting the variables.
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Demand Characteristics
Cues in an experiment that influence the participant's perception of what is expected of them/their behaviour.
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Determinism
Physical, behavioural and mental events are determined by factors that are potentially knowable.
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Disposition
A person's inherent qualities of mind and character (their nature).
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Dependent variable
Measure of what is affected during an experiment.
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Discrimination
The prejudicial treatment of different categories of people (e.g. race, age).
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Debrief
An ethical procedure where the participants are given information about the study and then can discuss the study.
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Ecological Validity
Refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalised beyond the present situation.
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Ego defence mechanism
Mental strategies used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in life.
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Ethics
The moral principles that govern a person or a group's behaviour.
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Ethnocentrism
Belief in the superiority of the group.
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Experiment
A scientific procedure to make a discovery or to test a hypothesis.
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Hypothesis
A testable explanation between 2+ events/variables, often stated as a prediction that has a certain outcome.
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Independent Measures
A type of method of experiment that involves 2+ seperate groups.
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Innate
Unconditioned (e.g. unconditioned reflex)
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Imitation
The action of using someone or something as a model to copy something.
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Interview
A formal discussion with someone for the purpose of an evaluation.
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Longitudinal Study
A research study that is repeated with the same participants over a period of time.
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Matched Pairs
Participants in different conditions that are matched according to certain characteristics.
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Nature/Nurture
Scientific aspects of behaviour that are inherited or learnt as a result of environmental influences.
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Object Permanence
The recognition that objects exist independently of an individual's action or awareness.
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Observation
A situation when an observer records the behaviour of a participant.
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Oedipus/Electra Complex
Ideas and feelings to desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and to eliminate the parent of the same sex.
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Operant Conditioning
Learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequence.
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Opportunity Sampling
Sampling technique not based on a random selection or probability.
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Order effects
Differences in a participant's performance that occurs as a result of experiencing different conditions in a specific order.
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Positive Reinforcement
A process of increasing the likelihood of a response by following the response with a desirable stimulus.
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Psychoanalytic Theory
Type of psychodynamic theory, aims for deeper understanding of their own unconscious thoughts and feelings.
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Random Sampling
A technique for obtaining participants where the population has an equal chance.
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Repeated Measures
Where each participant in the experiment participates in every level of the IV.
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Reductionism
Analysing and describing a complex phenomenon.
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Self-report
A method of gathering data by asking a participant to report and identify their behaviour or mental state.
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Self-selected Sample
The participants select themselves into a group.
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Social Learning Theory
Proposal that learning occurs through imitation and modelling of behaviour of role models.
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Stimulus
Any event, situation, object or factor that may affect behaviour.
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Survey
An investigation of behaviour or opinions of a group of people.
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Attitude

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A way of thinking, reflected in a person's behaviour.

Card 3

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Behaviourism

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Card 4

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Bias

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Card 5

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Case Study

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