Key Idea 4 Summary- How successful were Hitler's economic policies 1933-1945?

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State one economic problem in Hitler's January 1933 Government based on the economy?
It was virtually bankrupt and unemployment rate was over 6 million,
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Describe another economic problem based on industrial production and trade?
It had declined to 1890 levels while the volume of German trade decreased by 50%,
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Describe the last economic problem based on agriculture?
German agriculture was burdened with debt and was uncompetitive internationally,
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Describe the advantages of the situation with the Great Depression?
It was easing and the beginnings of German economic recovery could be detected,
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When did Reperations officially stop?
1932
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What were the advantages of the Reichmark currency?
It was no longer tied to the gold standard so the Government could interject more money into the economy,
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Whose plans was Hitler able to build up on and what was is aim?
- Von Schleicher, -The aim was to create work by building homes and roads and improving agriculture,
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What service was created in 1932 which helped to set up work for the unemployed?
The Voluntary Reich Labour Service
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How many men had it enrolled for short-term agricultural jobs by 1932?
300,000 men
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From 1932 onwards, why were fewer young people entering the Labour Market and why was this an advantage?
-The Birth rate declined between 1914 and 1918, -The Death rate of children rose by 40% in children, -This meant their were more jobs for middle age men whjo needed to support their families,
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Instead, where were young people employed temporarily and an example?
They were employed by organisations such as Voluntary Labour Service,
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By 1935, how many young men had these organisations employed?
half a million young men,
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Why is it a positive that the Labour movement's power was destroyed?
As it meant no one was demanding for higher wages but now set at lower levels and enabled companies to invest more money into production,
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For the Nazis to survive, what did they have to ensure and how did they decide this could happen?
Employment levels had to rise and they decided an increase in industrial production would help,
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Other than removing young people from the Labour Market, how else were they employed in May 1935?
By Conscription or compulsory military service,
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What age was conscription for?
18 year olds,
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What was the name of the German air force and by the Spring of 1935, how many recruits had it recruited?
Several hundreds of thosands,
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How else was employment levels increased with the Law against women working?
The Law for Reduction of Unemployment
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What did this Law mean for women?
It mwant they were seperating women from the Labour Market
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What did this Law try and persaude women to leave work?
They offered interest free loans of up to 1,000 Reichmarks to young couples about to get married as long as the wife stayed home and didnt re-enter work until the debt was repaid,
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What form was the loan given in and why?
Vouchers tbat had to be redeemed for goods such as household equpiment from small businesses,
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How many Reichmarks were invested in public work schemes?
1 billion
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What was provided for house construction by the Government?
Government subsidies
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How was the motor industry aided?
With tax concessions
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Give an example of how this improved sales?
From March-June 1933, those employed in the motor industry increased by 40%
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How did the Nazis change the structure of the week and why?
They shortened the week so more people were needed for work,
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What were Hitler's three main aims for his economic policies 1933-45?
-Full Employment, -Autarky, Achieving a total war economy,
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What is a definition of full employment and when was it finally reached?
WHen all who are able and willing to work can do so, -1938
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What is the definition of autarky and what two aspects would this be achieved through?
To achieve as high a level of economic self sufficiency as possible, -Industry and Agriculture,
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What percentage of agriculture self-sufficiency was achieved by 1939?
83%
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What is the definition of achieving a total war economy?
When all elements of the economy are geared toward the war effort
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What four methods were used to achieve these aims?
-Schacht's New Plan, -GOering's 4 Year Plan, -Conscription, -Public works,
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When was Schacht's New Plan introduced?
1934
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What are mefo bills which were introduced and explain who gives the money and how it is paid back?
Mefo Bills are a credit note to spend which allows industries to create things without paying with real money. The money comes from banks and would be repaid from success in invasions of different countries,
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What is the advantage with Mefo Bills?
They stimulate economy and public growth,
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What did the Plan aim to avoid to do?
Avoid reliance on foreigners
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What two areas did they only trade with and why?
-Balkans,- -South American, -As they are not countries that will be drawn away as they are too far away for invasion so wont stop trading,
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What did the Plan impose restrictions and control over?
Foreign trade,
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What crisis did it create?
Gun V Butter or Rearmament Vs Luxury
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Describe both arguments for each side of the Crisis?
Rearmament- Needed for war and helps towards total employment, -LUxury- Wanted foe Germans e.g. Strength throguh JOy
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What is a counter argument against luxury?
The Machinery of Terror stops dissatisified Germans from protesting,
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When was Goering's 4 Year PLan introduced?
1936
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What fuels were created in this plan but why was it inefficient?
Synthetic fuels, -6 tons of coal to make 1 ton
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How many departments were created and give three examples?
-Six, -foreign exchange, -Labour -Agriculture
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When was Conscription introduced and what ages was it compulsory for?
-1935, -18-25 years old,
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How long did the conscription last fior each man?
2 years
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What aims does this reach?
-Full employment, -Total war economy,
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Why was Conscription seen as threatning?
As it breaks the treaty of Versailles as the army was limited to 100,000 men,
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However, what does it allow long term?
Lebensraum,
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What aim does public works meet and whay does it stmulate?
It creates employment, -It stimulates industrial production of raw materials,
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Why is it prestigious and an example?
As it creates pride and patriotism, -Autobahns or 1936 Berlin Olympics,
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How many miles of autobahns were built by 1938 and why was it useful?
2000 miles by 1938 and it helped transport troops and asocials,
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What are other two successes of public workS?
-Houses, -Labour intensive so created lots of jobs,
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How much did the public work scheme cost?
1 billion Reichsmarks
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What the other 2 failures of public works?
-Railways- poorly organised due to the Dual State Government, -Inefficeint as too Labour Intensive,
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When was full employment achieved?
1938
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Give an example of how full employment was reached with work schemes and two example?
Work schemes introduced by von Papen adn Schliecher were extended and all unemployed aged 19-25 had to join, -In Agriculture (Battle for Production) and public works (Battle for Work
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What are the last two ways in which full employment was reached?
-Law for the Reduction of Unemployment, -The Voluntary Reich Labour Service and shortened weeks,
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However, what were the drawbacks of reaching full employment?
-Very costly, -Leaves no spare capacity when war starts,
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What two ways are these problems overcome durimg the war?
-7 million prisoners of war are used for Labour, -Women are put back into the workforce before war started and forced to register by 1943,
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What action by Germany helped them towards autarky?
The taking over of Austria and Sudetenland,
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What percentage of self sufficiency was reached in agriculture by 1939?
83%
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Were there any food shortages in Germany?
Not until 1944,
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What is the last reasons for how autarky was achieved?
Food prices were fixed by Reich Food Estate,
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However, what two pieces of evidence suggests Autarky was not achieved?
-They didnt want the population to suffer pre-war, -Trade deficit had risen,
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In 1941, who organised what aspect of Germany to help towards a total war economy?
Todt, -Rationalisation
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In 1942, what did Speer set up and what did this mean?
The Central Planning Board which meant one person was in control of the total war economy.
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However, what piece of evidence suggests total war economy was reached but how was it?
Although rearmaments production peaked, 1943-44 it was using 7 million prisoners
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However, why can it be argued 1943-44 is too late for total war economy?
As by 1941, america and Russia had entered the war so it was pointless,
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Card 2

Front

Describe another economic problem based on industrial production and trade?

Back

It had declined to 1890 levels while the volume of German trade decreased by 50%,

Card 3

Front

Describe the last economic problem based on agriculture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the advantages of the situation with the Great Depression?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When did Reperations officially stop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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