Key Authentic speech features

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Voiced Pauses
The use of the voice paused 'er' and 'um' as fillers to signal that the speaker is thinking and has not yet finished speaking - speaker is holding onto his/her turn.
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Pauses
Frequent pauses of various lengths. Some signal grammatical boundaries (the end of an 'utterance' or 'sentence'). If pauses are at non-grammatical boundaries they are usually non-fluency pauses ('I went to see a (.) girl'). Vary the pace.
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Repetition
Repetition of words or phrases for example 'not not', 'you get you get', 'I I I think'. This is sometimes a way of taking over the turn-taking or the speaker making sure they are being listened to.
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Repair / Self-correction
'Sign for signs of disease', 'get into get back into'.
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False starts
where the speaker changes his mind about what he wants to say next
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Fillers
To give thinking time and to hold onto turn 'you know' 'like' 'I mean'
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Elongated words
To give thinking time 'we:::ll', 'ye:::s'. Notice that the intonation on the extended vowel sound can convey a wide variety of attitudes, feelings and meanings.
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Elision
Where parts of words or sounds are omitted so that the two words are joined together for example 'you're', 'it's', 'they're'. Contraction of words so that the parts of them are not pronounced 'cos' for 'because' and 'flu' for 'influenza'
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Accent/pronounciation
Consider regional pronounciation
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Stress
Stress is often used to draw attention to contrasts.
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Simple monosyllabic lexis
Regular use of a simple or unsophisticated vocabulary, that is basic, short and simple
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Repetition
Of simple unsophisticated lexis
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Colloquialisms
Use of words and phrases commonly heard in fairly informal speech but generally avoided in writing
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Use of slang
bill - police, dosh, bouncer, git, codger, old fogy
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Vague language and hedges
Use of vague language that causes something to seem less certain or rather general, I think, kinda, gun thing, and stuff, thingy, and that - hedges
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Personal pronouns
I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, they, them - attitudes of the speakers and relationships, inclusivity
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Term of address
This can tell you a lot about relationships between the speakers and attitudes.
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Monitors
Words or phrases used to check or monitor that the listener is still following what is being said.
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Markers of sympathetic circularity
Words and phrases used to signal or mark the assumption that both the speaker and listening share understanding of what has just been said.
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Deictic referencing
Words and expression which depend for their meaning on context, the actual time and place, in which there are used for example, you, I and we, that and it, there. They indicate the relative positions of the speaker and the listener.
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Idiomatic expressions
Common expressions in a language where the meaning is not determinable from the meanings of the individual words - hit the roof, you're in his black book, a little bird told me, often methaphorical
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Dialect
or regional words associated with young or old people, jargon, technical words.
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Ellipsis
The omission of words that would normally be included in the composition of a grammatically complete sentence- I almost got (caught), but which do not prevent the meaning being clear. Ellipsis is the term for loss of words without the loss of meaning
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Minor sentences
Ellipsis of sentence elements (that are understood by the speakers) may often create minor sentences. Phatic expressions are often minor constructions, morning, all right?, see you later.
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Incomplete utterances
When the speaker just tails off or doesn't complete the sentence. This may happen when the speaker is interrupted.
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Exclamations
Wow - these may be in the form of vocalisations (Oh!) interrogatives (What!) and imperatives
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Topic markers
Usually adverbs or adverbial's that show the structure of speech by breaking it up into separate chunks. These make clear the sequence of thought in terms of stages, topic switches, asides, summaries.
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Informal structure and development of ideas
Unexpected and brief changes of topic, digressions, asides and parenthesis.
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Non-standard grammatical constructions
'there's speed restrictions' - where you would write 'there are' not 'there is'
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Interrogatives
These may not be shown by grammatical structure because they are conveyed by rising intonation. The actual words spoken may be in the form of a declarative 'you remember' rather than 'do you remember'.
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Imperatives
Look at these also in relation to turn-taking and who is in control of agenda setting
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Tag questions
When a declarative or imperative is changed into a question by adding a tag at the end. Can reflect timidity and insecurity or assertiveness or aggression. Added to an imperative it can create contradictory impression of assertiveness and timidity.
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Loose grammatical structure
with non-standard constructions. The language may lack the grammatical coherence of scripted speech. In scripted speech this may be suggested by frequent dashes.
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Multiple co-ordination
Frequent use of and to link clauses with and and but often used in the initial position in an utterance
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Cataphoric referencing
When a pronoun refers forward to something which is said later, it was great, the party.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Frequent pauses of various lengths. Some signal grammatical boundaries (the end of an 'utterance' or 'sentence'). If pauses are at non-grammatical boundaries they are usually non-fluency pauses ('I went to see a (.) girl'). Vary the pace.

Back

Pauses

Card 3

Front

Repetition of words or phrases for example 'not not', 'you get you get', 'I I I think'. This is sometimes a way of taking over the turn-taking or the speaker making sure they are being listened to.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

'Sign for signs of disease', 'get into get back into'.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

where the speaker changes his mind about what he wants to say next

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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