Key Theorists

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Theory by Austin and Searle. States that language is Constative, Illocutionary and Perlocutionary.
Speech Act
1 of 31
Part of Austin and Searle's theory. You require correct Authority, Performance and Attitude.
Felicity Conditions
2 of 31
There is a prestige linked to accents. Lower class people are more aware of this and therefore converge more often.
Labov
3 of 31
Theory by Howard Giles. Speech is adjusted, either by Convergence or Divergence.
Accommodation
4 of 31
Elaborated or Restricted Code.
Bernstein
5 of 31
Found that there are over 200 insults for women related to promiscuity whilst there are only 20 for men.
Stanley
6 of 31
Theory by Lakoff. There are 3 maxims: don't impose, give options and make the listener feel good.
Politeness
7 of 31
Theory by Goffman, Minsky and Gumperz. In conversations, we pick up contextual clues like tone of voice and body language so we can respond appropriately.
Frame
8 of 31
Theory by Lakoff. Women's language is less assertive and demonstrates their weak position in society.
Deficit Approach
9 of 31
Theory by Zimmerman and West. Men's language is used to assert their dominance and they will interrupt more in mixed-sex talk.
Dominance Approach
10 of 31
Theorist who developed the Maxims of Relevance, Quality, Quantity and Manner which must be kept in order to keep conversation healthy and flowing. Sometimes, Implicature is needed to read between the lines if one of these has been flouted.
Grice
11 of 31
Theory by Coulthard, Sinclair and Brazil. 2-Part Structure or 3-Part Structure
Exchange Structure
12 of 31
First part of the 3-Part Structure.
Initiation
13 of 31
Second part of the 3-Part Structure.
Response
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Third part of the 3-Part Structure.
Feedback
15 of 31
First stage of Labov's Narrative Structure Theory.
Exposition
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Second stage of Labov's Narrative Structure Theory.
Rising Action
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Third stage of Labov's Narrative Structure Theory.
Climax
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Fourth stage of Labov's Narrative Structure Theory.
Closure
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Theorist who found that non-standard features of language are more common in the lower classes.
Petyt
20 of 31
Theorist who found that relationships rather than class influence language choices.
Milrov
21 of 31
Group type where everyone knows each other (Milrov)
Closed
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Group type where some people don't know each other, meaning language may become more restricted. (Milrov)
Open
23 of 31
Theorist who found that objects also have an associated gender e.g. cars, boats. We unconsciously view the world from the male perspective. 'Female' objects increase status and are under the control of men.
Spender
24 of 31
Type of Goffman's Face Needs where liking and approval is shown by compliments, greetings, polite terms of address etc.
Positive
25 of 31
Type of Goffman's Face Needs where unpleasant requests are hedged to make receiver feel less threatened.
Negative
26 of 31
Theorist who found that dialectal variation is a conscious choice influenced by social attitude more than gender.
Cheshire
27 of 31
Theorist who found that non-standard language features are more common in the lower classes. Women are more conscious of language and tend to use more prestigious pronunciations.
Trudgill
28 of 31
Theory by Coates, Kuiper and Pilkington. Women's language contains lots of politeness features and is collaborative, supportive and cooperative. Men use more insults and ignore face needs in same-sex talk.
Difference Approach
29 of 31
Theorist who said that tag questions are not a sign of weak social status in women, seeing them instead as a method of maintaining fluency and as a form of politeness.
Holmes
30 of 31
Theory by Tannen. We have a repertoire of frames of which we have assumptions and expectations. Miscommunication occurs when these conflict with our expectations.
Schema
31 of 31

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Part of Austin and Searle's theory. You require correct Authority, Performance and Attitude.

Back

Felicity Conditions

Card 3

Front

There is a prestige linked to accents. Lower class people are more aware of this and therefore converge more often.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Theory by Howard Giles. Speech is adjusted, either by Convergence or Divergence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Elaborated or Restricted Code.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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