Key Theme One- Russian Ruler's main domestic policies- Agriculture

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 14-01-16 16:41
For AII, what was he known as?
Tsar Liberator
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What is his most revolutionary policies, when was it introduced and what did it do?
-1861, -Emancipation of the Serfs, -Serfs were allowed to own land and property and had more freedoms,
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However, what percent of the population still worked and lived as a serf?
30%
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What duties were introduced to allow peasants to buy lands but how long were they given to pay it off?
-Redemption Duties, -49 years,
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Due to Peasant unrest, what opposition groups emerged?
Narodniks and the People's Will,
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How much did the poll tax increase by?
80%
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How does AII show continuity?
Similar to Lenin-The tsars owned everything in theory, the state owned everything under Lenin,
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How does AII show change?
Different to AIII who reduced representation for peasants,
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For AIII, what problem continued for peasants from AII?
Land Hunger,
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Did he change redemption payments?
Yes, they decreased,
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What tax was abolished and when?
The poll tax in 1886
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However, what percent of taxes did peasants still have to pay?
90%
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What did he set up for peasants and nobles and when?
1883 Peasants Land Bank 1885 Nobles Land Bank
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The Finance Minister's policies was to return peasants back to what and evidence this occured?
-Return to almost level of serfdom- 10% of population "second serfdom",
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How was the 1891 Famine made worse?
It was made worse by grain exports- "starvation exports"
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What new kind of peasant emerged and what percent of the population did they make up?
-Kulaks, -20% of the population,
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How does AIII show continuity?
Similar to Lenin and Stalin in that agricultural policies made famines worse,
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How does AIII show change?
Different to Alexander II-reacted against his reforms,
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For NII, Stolypin abolish whose compulsory control and when?
-The Mir's control, -1906
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How had left the Mir by 1914 and what were people known as?
2 million had left, -"sober and strong"
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What problem continues under NII from AII?
"land hunger"
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What policy does NII abolish which AII implemented and when?
-Redemption duties, -1905,
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What policy did NII introduce and when which encouraged settlement where?
-Resettlement Bureau, -1896, -Encouraged settlement on "Virgin Land" such as Siberia,
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How many had resettled out of how many peasants?
750,000 out of 97 million,
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Give an example of increasing peasant discontent?
-1907 in the Volga region, houses of the gentry were burnt down and land taken,
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How does NII show continuity?
Similar to Khrushchev's Virgin Land Policy, Similar to AIII and Land Bank continued, and similar to Tsars as outdated methods continue,
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How does NII show change?
Stalin- dekulakisation,
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For the Provisional Government, what problem continues from AII?
-Land Hunger,
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For Lenin, what two things did he promise peasants under which economic policy?
-He promised "Peace, Bread, Land" and "Land to the Peasants" under State Capitalism,
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What Decree does Lenin introduce when he first arrives in power which does what?
-1917 Land Decree, -Accepted peasant land seizures,
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What voluntary policy did Lenin begin? Give statistics to show its slow progress.
-Voluntary collectivisation, -600,000 out of 100 million by 1921
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What policy did Lenin introduce for grain and what was the effect on its production?
-Grain requisitioning began, -Grain production fell by 20%
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However, in Lenin's NEP policy, how did his grain policies change?
It allowed some private trade and payment of 10% of grain to the government,
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How does Lenin show continuity?
Similar to Stalin in that both collectivised but Stalin by force and Lenin voluntary, -Tsars- allowed private enterprise,
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How does Lenin show change?
Stalin-As Stalin ended NEP,
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For Stalin, what policy of Lenin's did he enforce and what were the name of these farms?
-Force collectivisation, -Sovkhozy (state run collectivised farms)
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However, how did some peasants respond to collectivisation? Give a statisitic?
Some peasants responded by slaughtering livestock. -Between 1929 and 1934, 17.2 million horses were killed,
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What percent of farms were collectivised by 1936?
94%
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When was there a Famine and how many died?
1932-34, -5 million dead,
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What group of peasants were increasingly targeted in what policy?
-Kulaks, -Dekulakisation,
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How does Stalin show continuity?
SImilar to Lenin who also collectivised,
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How does Stalin show change?
Different to NII- Stolypin emphasised importance of Kulaks- Stalin say them as a threat, -Different to Tsars as he modernised agriculture through Motor Tractor Stations,
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For Khrushchev, what scheme did he introduce to address the problem of "land hunger" and when?
"Virgin Land Scheme", -1954,
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By 1956, how many hectares had been cultivated?
By 1956, 35.9 hectares had been cultivated which is equal to 1/3 of Canada,
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What stations did Khrushchev abolish which which ruler brought in?
-Motor Tractor Stations, -Stalin,
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Give an example of one of Khrushchev's unachievable agriculture targets?
A 700% increase in the production of fertiliser,
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How does Khrushchev sho continuity?
Similar to Nicholas II's Resettlement Bureau,
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How does Khrushchev show change?
Different to Stalin as Khrushchev was less repressive of peasants,
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To conclude, give the pattern/ the big picture for all the rulers on agriculture?
Despite early extensive reforms, the situation of the peasants changed little throughout the period as they were continuously exploited and land hunger also occured. They suffered most under Stalin and some benefitted under NII and initially Lenin,
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Card 2

Front

What is his most revolutionary policies, when was it introduced and what did it do?

Back

-1861, -Emancipation of the Serfs, -Serfs were allowed to own land and property and had more freedoms,

Card 3

Front

However, what percent of the population still worked and lived as a serf?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What duties were introduced to allow peasants to buy lands but how long were they given to pay it off?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Due to Peasant unrest, what opposition groups emerged?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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