Key Theme One- Russian Ruler's main domestic policies- Repression

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 14-01-16 10:26
For AII, at the beginning of his reign, what opposition group did he release and what had they attempted to do?
-He released the Decembrists, -They had tried to overthrow Nicholas I in 1825,
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Describe the 'Show Trial's AII had and which ruler also used this method of repression?
-Trial of the 50 and Trial of the 193 Narodniks, -Stalin,
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Give an example to show how prisons became more brutal?
St Petersburg prison was called "Th House of Slow Strangulation" -Prisoners were known as "Guests of the Tsar",
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Did Alexander II have a secret police? What was its name and was it used for the whole period?
-The Third Section, -No it was abolished in 1880,
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How does AII show continuity?
Similar to Nicholas who listened to demands for reforms
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How does AII show change?
He is different tp AIII and the Tsars as he was more reforming,
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For AIII, what was the name of his secret police and when did he set it up?
-Okhrana, -1881,
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What Statute did AIII introduce in 1881 and what did it allow?
1881 Statute of State Security, -This sanctioned greater use of repression and prison numbers increased,
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When was whose brother arrested for attempted assassination and when was he executed?
-1886 Lenin's brother was arrested, -1887 he was executed,
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Give two examples of the Populists subgroups but how many were arrested?
-'Land and Liberty' and 'People's Will', -150 members,
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Give another example of a growing opposition group and the name and date of their group?
-Marxists began to emerge, -1883 Liberation of Labour,
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How does AIII show continuity?
He is similar to early dictators in his extent of repression,
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How does AIII show change?
He is different to AII who was more reformist,
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For NII, did he have a secret police and if so, what was its name?
Yes- The Okhrana so continued for AIII,
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Who was Nicholas II's appointed Prime Minister in 1906?
Stolypin,
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What is the name given to Stolypin's repression and some statistics to show this.
-Stolypin's necktie, -1905-10 executed but by 1908- 825 executed,
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When was Bloody Sunday? How many protested and how many were killed?
-1905, -More than 150,000 people protested, -1,000s were killed when police open fired,
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What military mutiny occured in the Black Sea and when was this? Where did discontent spread to?
-The Potemkin Battleship Mutiny, -1905, -Discontent spread to the armed forced,
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What Massacre occured after a strike when? How many people died?
-Lena Gold Fields Massacre, -1912, -200 workers were killed when police open fired on strikers,
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How does NII show continuity?
He was similar to AII who listened to demands for reform,
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How does NII show change?
Different to AIII who regressed and repressed with little reforms for the people,
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For the Provisional Government, do they have a secret police?
No, they abolish the Okhrrana,
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What did they replace the Secret Police with?
It was replaced by local militia,
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What Bolshevi newspaper did they ban?
'Pravda'
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What happened to what prisoners?
Amnesty was given to political prisoners,
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For Lenin, did he have a secret police?
Yes- the Cheka,
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What military mutiny occurs which was put down by Trotsky when? How many were killed?
1921 Kronstadt Mutiny, -10,000 killed,
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Where and when was the first Soviet concentration camp set up?
Arctic Circle, -1921,
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What policy does Lenin introduce in 1921?
A ban on factions,
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Describe what Lenin banned first in 1917 and then banned in 1918?
1917- He banned all Bourgeois newspapers and parties, 1918-He banned all other parties and newspapers,
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By 1918, the Communist party controlled all key posts? What is the name of these key posts and how many did they control?
-5,000 Nomenklatura,
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How does Lenin show continuity?
He is similar to the Tsars as they also had assassination attempts, -Similar to Stalin- repression of opposition,
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How does Lenin show change?
He is different to Nicholas and Alexander II who were more reforming and less repressive,
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For Stalin, give an example of one of Stalin's worker Show Trials? When was it and how many were killed?
-Shakhty Trial of 1928, -Trial of the 16 (11 died),
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Did Stalin have a secret police?
Yes- The NKVD,
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In 1934, who was assassinated?
Kirov, Leningrad Party Boss,
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When were Stalin's Greatest Purges and how many death sentences were given each year?
1937-38 Purges, -Over 300,000 death sentences,
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What policy did Stalin introduce in 1937?
Torture was legalised,
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How does Stalin show continuity?
SImilar to Lenin with the repression of opposition,
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How does Stalin show change?
He is different to AII, NII and Khrushchev who are less repressive,
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For Khrushchev, does he have a secret police?
YEs- the KGP
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What does he give what prisoners? This show continuity with which ruler?
-He gives amnesty of political prisoners, -Alexander II,
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What were the name of Khruschev's two political opponents and what happened to them?
Beria-Killed by the army, Malenkov- Sent to manange a hydro-electric plant,
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What riot occured when and where? How many were killed?
Food Price Riot -1962, -Novocherkassk, -Hundreds dead,
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How does Khrushchev show continuity?
He is similar to AII and NII in that there was some easing of repression
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How does Khrushchev show change?
Different to Stalin- De-Stalinization,
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To conclue, what was the overall pattern/ big picture of continuity and change among the rulers for repression and opposition?
Repression always existed but treatment varied under each ruler. The more consistent approach was oppression, as giving into demands, as under NII, only encouraged greater opposition,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the 'Show Trial's AII had and which ruler also used this method of repression?

Back

-Trial of the 50 and Trial of the 193 Narodniks, -Stalin,

Card 3

Front

Give an example to show how prisons became more brutal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Did Alexander II have a secret police? What was its name and was it used for the whole period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does AII show continuity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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