key reading Brain 10

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 27-05-16 15:33
What’s the difference between extracellular and intracellular recording?
Extracellular: tungsten/steel electrodes, monitors one/more neurons, inserted into extracellular space Intracellular: electrolyte-filled glass electrodes with a finer tip, single neuron is penetrated
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What does a peristimulus time histogram display?
Neuronal firing pattern across time, each trial is temporally aligned and random background firing is averaged out
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What are used to assess how different regions of a circuit interact in multielectrode recording?
Correlational computer algorithms
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What does a loss of topography in higher visual cortices correspond with?
A diminished ability to identify the location and qualities of visual stimuli
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Outline the 4 distinct regions of the somatosensory cortex:
1. 1 and 3b: respond to cutaneous (skin) stimuli 2. 2: tactile and proprioceptive (sense of relative position of neighbouring parts of the body) stimuli 3. 3a: stimulation of proprioceptors (sensors that provide info about joint angle, muscle length,
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How are body parts represented in somatosensory maps?
medial → lateral arrangement
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What path does somatosensory information travel?
S1 → S2 (parietal cortex) → amygdala and other limbic areas
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Under what 4 conditions can phantom limbs occur?
> amputation > local nerve block for surgery > born without limbs > mastectomy
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What is unsupervised learning?
A form of learning algorithm that strengthens connections between units when units are simultaneously active
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What is graceful degradation?
Degrading of learning but performance is not completely damaged. E.g. local damage to the brain
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What are neuroglial cells? (Glia)
Cells that support and hold together nervous tissue, and some affect neuron’s signals
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How many neurons does the brain contain?
Roughly 100 billion
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What is the term used to describe multiple and complex dendrites stemming from a neuron?
Dendritic arborizations
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The number of inputs a neuron receives is usually proportionate to the _____ of its ______
Complexity, arborizations
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What two types of neural contacts between synapses are there?
Chemical and electric
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What did Sherrington confirm?
The organisation of the motor cortex responded to contralateral body parts
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What did Evart find correlated with changes in PMC firing rate?
Changes in muscle force and direction coding of the movement
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What neural areas are responsible for directing extraocular muscles?
Frontal eye fields in the cortex and superior colliculus
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What does stimulation in the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus of monkeys lead to?
Coordinated gaze shifts
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What areas show a readiness potential before an action is initiated?
Premotor regions
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What is anosognosia?
Damage to premotor and primary motor cortices. Leads to unawareness of ability to move.
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What areas are modulated by the strength of the motion stimulus favouring a particular eye movement response?
Posterior parietal, dorsolateral PFC, and superior colliculus
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What are collaterals?
Branches of axon
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What is the resting potential across the neural membrane?
-70mV
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What flows out of the neuron to restore resting potential?
Potassium ions (K)
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What neurotransmitter has an inhibitory effect on neurons and how does it do this?
GABA By opening up gated Cl- channels and making the inside of the neuron more negative than normal
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What method is good for measuring timing of cognitive events?
ERP
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What has good spatial and temporal resolution?
TMS
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What are the three types of neural representation?
1) Local: all information about a stimulus/event is carried in one of the neurons 2) Fully distributed: all information about a stimulus/event is carried in all the neurons of a given population 3) Sparse distributed: distributed representation
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What is temporal coding?
When a stimulus/event is associated with greater synchronisation of firing across different neurons
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The responses of place cells are highly ____ sensitive. If the ________ changes, the place the neuron codes for can also change substantially
Context, environment
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Where is the primary motor cortex found?
In the precentral gyrus
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What is hemiplegia?
Failure to move one side of the body due to unilateral PMC damage
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What neural area determines voluntary eye movement?
Frontal eye fields in the frontal lobes (Brodmann’s area 8)
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What guides eye and skeletal based movements respectively?
External senses Proprioceptive information regarding positions of the limbs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a peristimulus time histogram display?

Back

Neuronal firing pattern across time, each trial is temporally aligned and random background firing is averaged out

Card 3

Front

What are used to assess how different regions of a circuit interact in multielectrode recording?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a loss of topography in higher visual cortices correspond with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the 4 distinct regions of the somatosensory cortex:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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