Key principles associated with utilitarianism

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What did Bentham believe humans are motivated by
Bentham believed humans are motivated by a desire to experience as much pleasure as possible in their lives and to avoid experiences of pain
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What did he state about this?
'nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters,pain and pleasure'
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How did he relate this point to morality
He related this point to morality by claiming that it was good to promote happiness and bad to cause pain or unhappiness
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What is the hedonic calculus
The means of measuring the amount of pleasure our actions would create and this is referred to as the hedonic calculus and that it would be used in a moral dilemma
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What are the seven factors used to measure pleasure
Intensity, Duration, Certainty, Extent, Remoteness, Richness, Purity
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Why did the hedonic calculus face criticism
Because it was speculative for example, how can we possibly predict the intensity of the happiness that an action will create?
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Why did the hedonic calculus face criticism
The happiness that it attempts to measure is based on quantitative measure, it only measures the quantity of pleasure, rather than the quality of pleasure.
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What did Mill believe about the hedonic calculus
That there were different levels of pleasure and that 'those associated with the mind, such as literary and arftistic pursuits are more valuable than purely physical ones, such as eating and drinking'
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What did mill state?
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied'better to be socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied'
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What principle did Mill add to benthams theory and why
The harm principle in order to protec t and individual from suffering at the hands of the majority
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What did Mill feel Benthams theory was?
Mill felt Benthams theory was antinomian and that it was necessary to have some rules, to promote the greatest amount of happiness at all times and secondly to ensure that all members of society were protected.
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Was Mill a moral absolutist
No,mill was not a moral absolutist he agreed in some circumstances it was acceptable to lie
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What were the two examples of when it may be acceptable to lie?
It is acceptable to lie to someone who intends to use our information to further evil purposes, It is acceptable to lie to someone who is dangerously ill about their health if we are afraid that the news will cause him or her additional harm
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What is Mills approach to Utilitarianism called
Rule utilitarianism
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What is strong rule utilitarianism
Insists that the rules created using the utilitarian principles should never be broken under and circumstances
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What is weak rule utilitarianism
Argues that in some cases the greatest amount of happiness may be oromoted through breaking the rule. Therefor weak rule utilitarianism follows Mill's approach to telling the truth because there are sometimes exceptions to the rule.
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What is associated with Bentham
Act or rule utilitarianism
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What is the problem with act utilitarianism
It can have severe consequences
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what is preference Utilitarianism
Preference utilitarianism considers the happiness of those directly involved in the issue rather than society in general
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What did he state about this?

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'nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters,pain and pleasure'

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How did he relate this point to morality

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Card 4

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What is the hedonic calculus

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What are the seven factors used to measure pleasure

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