Key Definitions

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homeostasis
maintenance of constant internal environment despite external changes
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ectotherm
organisms relying on external sources of heat and behavioural activities to regulate body temperature
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endotherm
organisms that can control their own body temperature through production and loss of heat
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hypothalamus
part of brain that has various receptors that monitor blood and controls autonomic nervous system
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excretion
removal of metabolic waste from the body
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egestion
act of discharging undigested food as faeces
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metabolic waste
waste substances that are toxic or excess by chemical reactions inside cells
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transducer
device that transforms one type of energy to another form
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neurotransmitter
chemical released from one presynaptic membrane of one neurone to pass a signal to another neurone
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preganglionic neurone
the axon terminates when in contact with another nerve cell (in peripheral ganglion: a cluster of interconnecting nerve cells outside the brain
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postganglionic neurone
relays impulses beyond the ganglia and lies at the autonomic ganglia
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sympathetic nervous system
sympathetic chain of ganglia on each side of the spinal cord that divides the autonomic nervous system involving the production of an immediate response during stress or emergency
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parasympathetic nervous system
neurones between the brain and spinal cord which divides the autonomic nervous system involving the production of opposite effects such as slowing heart and muscle relaxation
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endocrine gland
hormones directly secreted into blood capillaries
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diabetes mellitus
blood glucose levels cannot be controlled
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diabetes insipidus
kidney tubules do not reabsorb sufficient water content
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phototropism
growth or movement response to light (by a cell/organism)
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geotropism (gravitropism)
growth or movement response to gravity (by a cell or organism)
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nastic response (plants)
growth or movement in response to touch which is not dependant on direction of stimulus (turgor pressure)
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tropic response
directional growth response which is determined by external stimulus
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coenzymes
molecules that carry atoms/molecules from one enzyme controlled reaction to another to help enzymes in oxidation/reduction reactions
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chemiosmosis
flow of H ions through ATP synthase enzymes which allows production of ATP through flow force (on inner mitochondrial membrane for respiration and thylakoid membrane for photosynthesis)
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nephron
microscopic tubule in the kidney that receives fluid from the blood capillaries in the cortex and converts to urine the drained into the ureter
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Card 2

Front

organisms relying on external sources of heat and behavioural activities to regulate body temperature

Back

ectotherm

Card 3

Front

organisms that can control their own body temperature through production and loss of heat

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

part of brain that has various receptors that monitor blood and controls autonomic nervous system

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

removal of metabolic waste from the body

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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