Keeping healthy

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What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microorganism
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One of the main problems with viruses is that they:
damage the host cell when they reproduce
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What is one of the main problems with bacteria?
They produce toxins.
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What is a function of white blood cells?
To ingest and destroy pathogens
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What is a way in which antibodies can neutralise pathogens?
They stick the pathogens together so they are ingested more easily.
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What can vaccination involve?
Injecting an inactive form of the pathogen to stimulate immunity
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What is one way that antibiotics work?
They can stop bacteria from reproducing
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What is the main reason why we should be careful not to overuse antibiotics?
Dangerous strains of resistant bacteria may develop by natural selection.
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There is no vaccine against the common cold because:
the cold virus mutates too quickly for a vaccine to be effective
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What is a conflict between a person's right to decide about what is best for themselves and what is right for society as a whole?
having their children vaccinated
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What is an issue that parents must consider when having their child vaccinated?
do the benefits outweigh the risks?
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What are antibiotics?
Substances that kill bacteria or prevent their growth.
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Antibiotics are effective against:
bacteria
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What is the main reason why we should be careful not to overuse antibiotics?
Dangerous strains of resistant bacteria may develop by natural selection.
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Antibiotic resistance can develop because:
mutations in individual bacteria protect them from the antibiotic, allowing them to reproduce
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What happens to new medical drugs before they are released?
They are tested in the laboratory, then on volunteers.
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What is one reason why drug development is so expensive?
Most of the chemicals that are developed by drugs companies do not pass all of the tests.
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What are the features of a double-blind trial?
Neither the researchers nor volunteers know what the volunteers are receiving.
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A placebo is:
an inactive substance given in place of a drug
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Which blood vessels have the thickest walls?
Arteries.
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Veins take blood:
to the heart and have valves.
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In which vessels is blood pressure greatest?
Arteries.
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What do the coronary arteries do?
supply the heart muscle with blood.
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A common risk factor for heart disease is:
being overweight
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What is a correlation between a factor and an outcome?
people who smoke are more likely to have heart disease
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What factors could increase the risk of heart disease?
number of cigarettes smoked
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John's grandfather smoked 60 cigarettes a day and lived to be 98 when he died in his sleep. Which of the following best explains this statement?
individual cases do not provide convincing evidence
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For a scientist, which of the following is an example of the peer review process?
having your work checked by other scientists
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Which of the following scientific claims is the most reliable?
one that has been checked and repeated by other scientists
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

One of the main problems with viruses is that they:

Back

damage the host cell when they reproduce

Card 3

Front

What is one of the main problems with bacteria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a function of white blood cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a way in which antibodies can neutralise pathogens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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