kant

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Kant of background
• Professor in logic and metaphysics • German philosopher • Most influential thinker of the Enlightenment era • Influenced by pietism, a Protestant
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background of kant argument
‘the moral law within’ • Deontological (duty based), Objective, absolutist, non-consequentialist Moral statements are a priori synthetic – prove true/false through evidence
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Good will
• The only pure motive that is goof without qualification
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a moral action
duty + good will
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good will quote
• ‘Good will shines forth like a precious jewel’
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duty
• Searching for an objective definition of morality which could be applied in all situations, rational, free from emotion,
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the only thing that stops duty
• If circumstances prevent this, the obligation finishes • Duty involves freewill acting from duty cannot be forced
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different kinds of duty
• Perfect duty, Imperfect duty – allow desires to be included upon practise
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hypothetical imperative
• An action which achieves a goal or result •absolute, A posteriori, teleological
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three postulates of practical reason
god, immortality, freedom
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adolf eichmann
kantian ethics, freedom removed under hitler
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the milgrim experiment
researching how far people would go in obeying instructions if it hurt someone -
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the categorical imperative
• Broke down into small pieces that he called ‘maxims’, • No uncertainty or dependence on other factors, good in itself
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categorical quote
• ‘Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law’
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universalisation quote
in the same situation, all people should act in the same way’
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Universalisation
• Everyone must be able to perform the action or it fails
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kant's examples
examples 1) suicide 2) promise-breaking 3) laziness 4) not helping others, all of these cannot be universalised
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humans as ends quotes
A moral code must treat humans with respect’
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humans as ends
• Humanity is the highest point in God’s creation, intelligent rational beings with human rights • Kant ruled out all exploitations like slavery
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the kingdom of ends quote
• ‘Everybody should act as though everyone else has the same human rights as themselves’
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the kingdom of ends
• Society made of people being treated as ends, not means
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the summum bonum
• Supreme good that humans must achieve • Human virtue and happiness are united • Immortal goals – can’t reach in this lifetime
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noumenal realm
the intelligible world which is constant and unchanging (actual world) a) Categorical Imperative, reason, duty, a priori, perfect, unchanging, intelligent, must/should actions
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phenomenal realm
a) Hypothetical Imperative, experiences, senses, changing, imperfect, consequences, if b) Humans are imperfect because of the phenomenal realm; must use the noumenal realm to be moral
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background of kant argument

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‘the moral law within’ • Deontological (duty based), Objective, absolutist, non-consequentialist Moral statements are a priori synthetic – prove true/false through evidence

Card 3

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Good will

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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a moral action

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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good will quote

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