Japan 1880-1940

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When was the Meiji Restoration and what was it?
1868: restored practical imperial rule to Japan and unleashed a period of radical modernisation
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What did Bonnie Oh quote that imperialism was?
"For Japan, imperialism was a means of attaining equality with the West"
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What were the reasons for Japans imperialism?
Western insecurity, expand sphere of infleuence and the need for natural resources
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When was the Hokkaido Colonisation Office and established and what was its aim?
1869 to defend the northern Island from Russia
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What are two examples of imperialism pre 1880?
1876 control of the Tshushima Islands and Ryuku islands in 1879
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What is the economic argument for imperialism?
Japan needed natural resources for industrialisaion, Japan wanted an overseas market without Western competition and agricultural land was needed for the expanding population
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What did economy look like under the Meiji rulers?
Concept of market economy, western forms of free enterprise capitalism, rapid growth and structural change
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Who paid for the rapid industrialisation?
Heavily subsidised by the government and the zaibatsu firms
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By what decade did Japan have a modern industrial framework?
1890
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What were the Meiji Emperors three goals?
Industrialisation, study western culture and technology, imperialism
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What was the short term outcome of the Sino-Japanese War 1894-5?
Japanese victory - gave her first foothold in Asian continent and China was forced to recognised Korea independence and cede Taiwan and the Liaotung peninsula
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What was the long term outcome of the Sino-Japanese War?
Russia wanted power over Port Arthur and under the 'triple intervention' (Germany, France, Russia) to force Japan out in return for financial compensation - increased Japanese-Russia tensions
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What does Harding describe the imperial threat of Korea as?
"Dagger aimed at the heart"
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What goods were produced in 1890-1900s?
Initially textiles and handicraft boom however lef to consumption goods and exports to pay for imported capital for modern industry
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What was the outcome of Russo-Japanese (1904-5) war?
Japanese victory - encouraged nationalists to view Japan as the regions natural leader and the western leaders to recognise Japan's force. Treaty of Portsmouth allowed Japan to dominate Korea and secure a new sphere of infleunce, southern Manchuria
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What was the policy of nanshin?
1900-1910s focus on southwards advance - focus away from northern advance to the south sea islands in order to gain natural resources
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What was the focus of the Japanese economy at the start of the twentieth century?
Heavy industry, infrastructure and engineering
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What was the result of WW1 for Japan?
WW1 was the turning point for Japan on the world stage, Japan was granted Germany's asian colonies under the League of Nations and finally it seemed like the unequal treaties act of 1853 had been avenged
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What does Townsend state regarding Japan's position following WW1?
"Japan had been allowed into the big power club and for now she felt secure"
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What was the role of Japanese economy in WW1?
Japan took the opportunity to dominate manufacturing markets and enjoy unprecedentated growth in all sectors of the economy (especially modern industry)
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What does Yamamura state about WW1 for the economy of Japan?
"The WW1 boom firmly established the viability of modern industry in Japan"
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What was Japan's trade position as a result of WW1?
Japan went from a debtor in 1913 to a creditor in 1920
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What was the domestic consequences of WW1 growth on agriculture?
Agriculture had to pay for the financial burden of development (peasant tax of 18%) which led to 1918 rice riots for higher wages and political rights
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What were the effects of the Great Depression on Japan's imperial policies?
Attempts to integrate the Japanese economy became frustrated in the light of the 1920s depression because barriers were placed on Japanese trade and a belief that the League of Nations had a westen bias e.g. Japan forced to reduce its naval size
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What was the position of the Japanese economy in the 1920s?
Japan could not resume the gold standard which caused exports to decline and a return of the deficit however secondary industry continued to grow
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What were the policies of imperialism in the 1930s?
Emergence of pan-Asian ideas for economic cooperation e.g. New Order in East Asia 1938
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What did Townsend describe Japan's 1930s policies were focused on?
"Asia for Asians"
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What were some imperial acts in the 1930s?
Manchuria crisis and development of Manchukuo state in 1931, Japan leaving the League of Nations in 1933 and Rape of Nanking in 1937
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What was the economic policies in the 1930s?
Expansion due to increased population and shortage of raw materials, fiscal spending and economy recovered
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What occured in Japan's domestic politics in the 1930s?
Tsuyoshi was assassinated in 1932 by ring wing extremists leading to the establishment of military veto in 1936 and then in 1940, a military-bureaucratic regime led by General Tojo
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How does Townsend describe Japan's position in the 1930s?
"The mix of international events and domestic politics was to prove a lethal cocktail"
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What was Japan's position in the 1940s?
Japan continued with imperial policies. Most successful as the occupation of SE Asia and South Pacific islands in 1941-2 as a result of precipitating war with the US
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What was the increase in Japanese growth rates 1870-1913 and 1913-1938? In comparison, what was the US?
Japan 1) 2.4% and 2) 3.9% wheras US 1) 4.6% to 2) 1.1%?
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How much did the Japanese population increase between 1885 and 1920?
45%
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How much did total output grown by between 1885 and 1920?
260%
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What was the increase in employment (secondary and teritary) between 1920 and 1940?
Secondary was 3 million and tertiary was 4.5 million
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What was the division of natural resources between Japan and the United States in 1938?
Coal 0 vs 36% and oil 0 vs 60%
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How much did the military budget increase between 1932 and 1936?
2.5 times
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In the 1920s, how much of rural Japan were below modest incomes?
1/3
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Between 1885 and 1920 how much of capital investment was the government responsible for?
30-40%
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Card 2

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What did Bonnie Oh quote that imperialism was?

Back

"For Japan, imperialism was a means of attaining equality with the West"

Card 3

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What were the reasons for Japans imperialism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When was the Hokkaido Colonisation Office and established and what was its aim?

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Card 5

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What are two examples of imperialism pre 1880?

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