Italian Unification, 1815 - 1870

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When did Napoleon Bonaparte crown himself King of Italy?
1805
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What did the Italian peninsula look like when Napoleon invaded in 1796?
A complicated patchwork of states; separate states
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What were the 3 main regions in the North of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?
Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia.
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What were the two main regions in the Centre of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?
Central Duchies, Papal States.
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What was the main region in the South of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?
Kingdom of Naples
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Who ruled Piedmont prior to Napoleonic rule?
House of Savoy
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What was Piedmont sometimes referred to as?
Sardinia-Piedmont
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Who ruled Lombardy prior to Napoleonic rule?
Austria (supported by Austrian army) - economically strong!
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What was the capital of Lombardy prior to Napoleonic rule? And how many inhabited it?
Milan, 130,000.
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Who ruled Venetia prior to Napoleonic rule?
Local aristocracy rule. Austrian influence.
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What constituted the 'Central Duchies' prior to Napoleonic rule?
Tuscany, Modena, Parma.
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How were the Central Duchies governed prior to Napoleonic rule?
'Satellites' of Austria (dukes with Austrian influence). Its chamber, House of Lorraine, was part of Hapsburg Empire.
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How were the Hapsburg involved in the Central Duchies prior to Napoleonic rule?
House of Lorraine was part of Hapsburg.
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How were the Papal States governed prior to Napoleonic rule?
Governed by Pope who held temporal power. Military relied on other Catholic countries (e.g. Austria). Economically weak.
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What was the Kingdom of Naples sometimes referred to as?
The Kingdom of Two Sicilies
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Who ruled the Kingdom of Naples prior to Napoleonic rule?
Bourbon Family
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Who ruled Sicily prior to Napoleonic rule?
King of Naples, via viceroy.
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Which was the most prosperous prior to Napoleonic rule, and why: North, Centre, South.
North - under strong Austrian influence.
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What was the weakest region of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?
Kingdom of Naples - largest & poorest region.
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When was Napoleon defeated at Waterloo?
1815
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Why was Lombardy the strongest region of 'Italy' prior to Napoleonic rule?
Ruled by Austria - supported by Austrian army.
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In 1798, what did Napoleon Bonaparte do?
Got rid of the old complicated pattern of states - divided country into four separate republics.
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In 1810, what did Napoleon Bonaparte do?
Divided the country into 3 separate parts.
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In 1810, under French rule, what was the division of the country called?
Tripartite Division
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What were the 3 diff. parts of the Tripartite Division?
N-W portion: Piedmont, Central Duchies, Papal States: treated as Fr. annex. Kingdom of Italy: Lombardy, Modena, Bologna. Kingdom of Naples.
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Which states were in the N-W portion of the Tripartite Division?
Piedmont, Central Duchies, Papal States.
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Which states were in the 'Kingdom of Italy' portion of the Tripartite Division?
Lombardy, Modena, Bologna.
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Who ruled the 'Kingdom of Italy' in the Tripartite Division?
Napoleon's step-son ruled as viceroy.
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Who ruled the 'Kingdom of Naples' in the Tripartite Division?
Napoleon's bro., Joseph. - NO BOURBON RULING DYNASTY.
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Why wasn't Sicily involved in the 'Kingdom of Naples' in the Tripartite Division?
Sicily was controlled by Britain.
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What were two negative factors of life under French rule?
Increased conscription of young men into the army; high taxation needed to fund military expenditure.
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How much of tax revenue collected by French authorities in Italy was used for war under French rule?
60%
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What were the 4 diff. sectors of Italian society that were affected under French rule?
The Church; the wealthy; urban groups; the peasants.
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What year was temporal power declared at an end under French rule?
1809
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What were 4 reasons of how the Church was affected by French rule?
temporal power declared at an end; Papal States to be governed by French; monasteries closed down; Church lands were sold off to landowning noble families.
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Who were Church lands sold off to under French rule; why were peasants disappointed?
landowning noble families; the lots were too large and expensive for peasants to purchase.
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What 3 sectors of society are we talking about when we mention 'the wealthy'?
well-to-do noble landowners; m-c bankers; merchants
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Which influential character in the unification of Italy was affected by French rule?
Cavour; did well from purchase of Church land.
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What were 3 measures of unity that affected urban groups under French rule?
External customs barriers were simplified & internal trade between It. states were swept away; better roads were built & transport was improved; Industry was encouraged
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Why was industry encouraged for urban groups under French rule?
So that the French could benefit from buying cheap Italian goods.
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What significant law was introduced under French rule in 1804?
Code Napoleon
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When was the Code Napoleon introduced?
1804
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What did the Code Napoleon introduce?
civil laws; single legal system (women were still classed as minors)
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How were the m-c affected by the introduction of a 2-chamber representative gov. in each state?
Many young men gained experience of gov. in 'Parliament'
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How were gov.'s affected in each state under French rule?
Two-chamber representative gov.'s were introduced
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What 3 French ideals were absorbed in Italy?
Liberty; equality; fraternity.
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How were people lower in the social scale affected by the changes for urban groups under French rule?
Changes introduced by Napoleon brought financial and business advantages.
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What were the marriage customs like for peasants under French rule?
Italian couples married young; parents of girl presented 'dowry gifts' to husband
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What was 'pellagra' and how did maize affect it?
Maize was the common grown crop for peasants; developed into pellagra; 95,000 cases reported
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What was a popular industrial trade for peasant women in the South?
Silk weaving; women raised silk worms
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What is 1 word to describe effects of French rule on Italian life? (begins with P...)
Paradoxical
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How were the effects of French rule 'paradoxical' on Italian life?
Educated Italians were inspired by Fr. ideals, wanted to imitate Fr. by modernising It. and founding Italian nation state; Fr. imperialism inspired wish to overthrow Fr. domination
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What did people mean when they complained about people's focus on 'high politics' under French rule?
For most Italians, politics was irrelevant & they were just trying to survive.
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What would have been two effective measures of overthrowing Fr. rule?
Mobilise peasant masses; constructive measures to raise standard of living
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When was the Vienna settlement?
1815
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What was the initial role of Metternich?
Austrian Chancellor; Austria controlled most of peninsula
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What is a quote of Metternich towards the idea of Italian unification?
'Italian affairs do not exist'
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What did the Congress of Vienna/Vienna settlement do?
Reinstate old rulers; 'Restored Monarchs'
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Who was 'restored' to Piedmont following CofV in 1815?
Vic. Em. 1. (along with Genoa!!!)
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Who ruled Lombardy and Venetia following CofV?
viceroy
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Who ruled the Central Duchies following CofV?
Austrian-appointed rulers
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Who ruled the Papal States following CofV?
Pope & Austrian armed forces
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Who ruled Naples and Sicily following CofV?
King Ferdinand; Austria's support.
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What did Metternich desire to do (in quote)?
'extinguish the spirit of Italian unity'
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What was Metternich determined to suppress?
liberal and nationalist movements
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Why was Metternich determined to suppress liberal and nationalist Italian movements?
Saw them as a threat to the Habsburg Empire
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Which state joined Piedmont following the CofV?
Genoa
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Why weren't the Genoans happy following the CofV?
Didn't want to be part of Piedmont!!!
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Which state had a progressive Restored gov.?
Tuscany
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Why was Tuscany considered a progressive Restored gov.?
Improved education; freedom of expression (Antologia) - Mazzini ideal; Ferdinand could've granted a constitution if Metternich wasn't there
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What is 'Antologia'?
Mazzini ideal; freedom of expression
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Who was a barrier to Ferdinand granting a constitution in Tuscany?
Metternich
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Which 2 states had a reactionary Restored gov.?
Piedmont; Papal States
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What happened in Piedmont following the 'Restored gov.' to label it as reactionary?
Vic. Em. 1 abolised the Code Napoleon
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What 3 things happened in the Papal States following the 'Restored gov.' to label it as reactionary?
lay population had no say; Inquisition; censorship
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In the nationalist movement, what were the Lib's like and what did they want?
Moderate (peaceful); constitutional monarchy.
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In the nationalist movement, what were the Rad's like and what did they want?
Extreme (violent); democratic republic
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Who opposed the 'Restored Monarchs'; Libs or Rads?
Rads
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What were the 2 aims of secret societies?
overthrowing restored monarchs; driving out Austrians
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What were 2 reasons as to why the secret societies failed?
lack of organisation; small and scattered
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What was the most prominent secret society called?
The Carbonari
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Where were the Carbonari most active?
Southern Italy
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Who initially tried to suppress the Carbonari?
Naples
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The Carbonari were surprisingly moderate. What was their main aim?
Constitutional monarchy
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What were the two different aspects of the nationalist movement?
Liberal/Radical
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What were the 3 1820 revolutions?
Naples; Sicily; Piedmont.
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Who was the King of Naples and Sicily?
King Ferdinand 1
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Which states did King Ferdinand 1 rule?
Naples; Sicily; 'Kingdom of Two Sicilies'
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What did Ferdinand 1 do in Naples to anger people enough to start a revolution?
Reactionary; censorship, corrupt gov., cut-backs on public spending
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Which recent revolution in another country encouraged the Carbonari and libs. to take action in Naples?
Spanish revolution
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Which secret society revolted in Naples in 1820?
Carbonari (and liberals)
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Who was the head of the rebel army in the 1820 Naples revolution?
General Pepe
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Who was General Pepe?
Head of rebel army in 1820 Naples revolution
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Which constitution did King Ferdinand say he would allow Naples to have in 1820?
Spanish Constitution of 1812
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What did the Spanish Constitution of 1812 do?
franchised all adult males; limited King's power
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What was the result of the 1820 Naples revolution?
New gov. was appointed
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What were 3 reasons for Sicily revolting in 1820?
Independence from Naples (forcibly united, 1815); felt Ferdinand neglected them; agricultural prices fallen (debt for Sicilian peasants)
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Why were Sicilian peasants particularly angry in 1820?
Agricultural prices had fallen - debt.
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What was the capital of Sicily?
Palermo
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What did Palermo want in 1820 and how did they go about achieving it?
Constitution; gov. offices burned down / prisoners released
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What was the result of the Sicilian 1820 revolt?
Neapolitan governor sent back to Naples via. boat!!
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Who was the ruler of Piedmont in 1820?
Vic. Em. 1
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What was Vic. Em. 1 like?
Reactionary; Piedmont would remain with 1770 absolute monarchy
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When news of Naples hit Piedmont in 1820, what happened?
Carbonari members revolted. Declared war on Austria after setting up prov. gov.
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When Victor Em. 1 abdicated, following Turin mutiny Piedmont, who took power?
Charles Albert.
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Who was supposed to take power in 1820/21 when Vic. Em. 1 abdicated?
Charles Felix
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What did Charles Albert do when he took power in 1820/21?
Praised 1812 Spanish Constitution. Fled when Felix returned and left Lib.'s to fight for constitution themselves!
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What did Charles Felix do when he returned to power following Charles Albert in 1820/21?
Denounced C.A. as a rebel and repealed the constitution.
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What was the aftermath of the Sicilian revolt?
Naples recovered control; abolished trade guilds where members had been leaders of rev.
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What was Metternich's reaction to the revolutions of 1820/21?
Called on 'Great Powers'; Prussia, Russia, Austria
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Who were the 'Great Powers'?
Prussia, Russia, Austria
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What was the conference in 1821 where Ferdinand declared he had issued the constitution in Naples out of fear?
Laibach Conference
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What did King Ferdinand 1 state at the Laibach Conference 1821?
He had issued the constitution of fear
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Which states were involved in the 1830/31 revolutions?
Modena, Parma, Papal States.
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Who began the 1830/31 revolution in Modena?
Enrico Misley
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Who did Enrico Misley tell about the 1830/31 revolution in Modena?
Duke Francis
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Who did Duke Francis inform about Misley's Modena revolution?
Austria
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Who was the ruler of Parma in 1830/31?
Marie-Louise (she fled!)
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What happened whilst Duke Francis went to Austria in 1830/31?
Modena and Parma made a joint army.
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When Austria and Duke Francis returned to Modena/Parma in 1830/31 and began controlling the revolt, what was a ridiculous sign of radicalism?
Beards!
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Who did Duke Francis return with to suppress the revolution in Modena/Parma in 1830/31?
Austria
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Who began the 1830/31 revolutions in the Papal States?
Professional classes; resented oppressive rule of Church authorities
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Why did the professional classes start the 1830/31 revolution in the Papal States?
Resented oppressive rule of Church authorities
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What rev. gov. was created in 1831 in Bologna?
The Government of Italian Provinces
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Where was the 'Government of Italian Provinces' situated?
Bologna
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How did Metternich (+ Austria) react to the 'Government of Italian Provinces'?
Suppressed & defeated the rebels.
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How was Louis Phillipe involved in the 1830/31 revolutions?
Italians believed he may support the liberals as he had endorsed constitutions in the past!
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What are 4 reasons as to why the 1830/31 revolutions failed?
Austrian strength; local & separate revolutions; little popular support; no outside help
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What are 2 reasons why the 1820 - 1831 revolutions failed?
Austrian strength; local & limited
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Which states did Austria end up taking control of in the 1820 - 31 revolutions?
Piedmont; Naples; Papal States
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Why were the 1820 - 31 revolutions mainly middle-class?
People didn't want 'rule by the mob' - peasants weren't encouraged to help!
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What were 3 reasons as to why the 1820 - 31 revolutions were local & limited?
Little communication & co-op; relied heavily on secret societies (isolated); most people just wanted granting of constitution - no violence!
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What is an example of little communication & co-op between states in the 1830-31 revolutions?
Bologna refused to send help to Modena.
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Success in the 1820 - 31 revolutions was only temporary. This is due to the failure of gov. to take effective action. What is an example of this?
Rulers' habit of running away.
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What other revolution sparked the rulers' habit of running away in the 1820 - 31 revolutions?
French Revolution 1789 - rulers expected to be defeated!
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What did Metternich refer to Mazzini as?
'The most dangerous man in Europe'
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Why did Mazzini wear black?
A sign of mourning for his divided country.
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What 3 revolutionary organizations was Mazzini involved in?
Carbonari; Young Italy; Rome Republic
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Mazzini believed in the 'brotherhood of people'. What 3 other things did he believe in?
Nationalism; avoidance of outside support/domination; 'bottom-up' unification
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What was Mazzini's ideal?
Republicanism
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Which other revolutionary figure followed in the footsteps of Mazzini?
Garibaldi; 1831 Genoa proposed revolt
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What did Mazzini effectively become in 1849?
President of Rome
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When was the Rome Republic created?
1849
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What is a criticism of Mazzini?
out-of-touch with peasants
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What did Mazzini describe the eventual unified Italy as?
'dead corpse'; had outside help
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What was the first real Italian political party; who started it?
Young Italy; Mazzini
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What did Young Italy believe in?
'one free independent republican nation!'
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Who was Charles Albert?
King of Piedmont
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When did Charles Albert become King of Piedmont?
1831
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Who created the 'Statuto'?
Charles Albert
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What would survive to become the Constitution of the unified Italy?
Statuto
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Which two Piedmontese defeats via Austria was Charles Albert involved in?
Battle of Custoza; Battle of Novara
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After Charles Albert lost at the Battle of Novara, who did he abdicate for?
Vic. Em. ll
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When were the battles of Custoza/Novara?
1848/49
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When was Pope Pius lX elected?
1846
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Why were people excited about Pope Pius lX being Pope?
He had liberal sympathies/hope for unification
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In 1848/49, what was the radical transformation that Pope Pius lX undertook?
rejected Risorgimento; excommunicated all who tried to reduce temporal power
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What were 3 reforms that Pope Pius lX made in 1846 which showed hope for Italy?
freed 2000 political prisoners; ended press censorship; granted Rome a constitution to replace absolute Papal rule
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Which 7 states were involved in the 1848/49 revolutions?
Sicily; Tuscany; Piedmont; Modena; Parma; Venetia; Milan
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What were the 4 causes for the revolutions of 1848/49?
Pope's rejection of Risorgimento; Libs calling for constitution; Nationalists demanding independence from Austria; economic problems (1846/47 - bad harvest, espec. South!)
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Was the Sicilian revolt of 1848/49 a success or failure?
Success (at first!)
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Why were Sicilians revolting in 1848/49?
Ferdinand had initially offered a better life for them - nope!; wanted 1812 constitution
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What happened in the Sicilian revolution of 1848/49?
Prov. gov. was set up / parl. elected / Naples and Sicily were separated
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Why did the Sicilian revolution of 1848/49 not help the cause for unification?
Wasn't concerned with national unity; separatist movement
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Why did the Sicilian/Naples revolt of 1848 fail?
Ferdinand beat them. Sicilians were forced to accept reunification with Naples. Abolished parl; absolute rule!
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What was the result of the Tuscany & Piedmont revolution of 1848/49?
Promised to grant constitution!
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What was the result of the Modena & Parma revolution of 1848/49?
Rulers had to flee for their lives!
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What was the result of the Venetian revolution of 1848/49?
Austrians surrendered; Independent Venetian Republic was set up
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How long did the Venetian Republic of 1849 last?
One year
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Where were 'THE FIVE DAYS'?
Milan
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What was the result of the Milan revolution of 1848/49?
THE FIVE DAYS
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Where was 'THE FIVE DAYS' situated?
Milan; Austrian-controlled Lombardy
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What did 'THE FIVE DAYS' begin as?
Tobacco boycott - Austrian monopoly - believed Austrian finances would be affected
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In Milan's 'THE FIVE DAYS', why did General Radetzky withdraw?
Revolutions had broken out & Metternich had resigned!
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After a prov. gov. had been enforced, who did Milan go to for help in 'THE FIVE DAYS'?
Charles Albert / he had just granted Statuto to Kingdom of Sardinia.
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What did C.A. do in 1848/49 when Milan called on him for help?
DECLARED WAR ON AUSTRIA
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What is the result of 'THE FIVE DAYS' often referred to as?
First Italian Independence War
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When was the 'First Italian Independence War'?
1848
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Who started the 'First Italian Independence War'?
Charles Albert
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What did the Pope do throughout the First Italian Independence War?
Issued allocution on how Papal States was not at war w/ Austria / turned its back on liberalism
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Which 2 battles ended the First Italian Independence War?
Battle of Custoza / Battle of Novara
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When was the Roman Republic created?
1849
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What were the 3 steps to the creation of Roman Republic?
Pope fled; Constituente (Garibaldi was part of); Con. proclaimed an end to temporal power of Pope
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How did the Roman Republic end?
France occupied Republic; Pope returned & people were relieved
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Who were the 3 main figures surrounding the Roman Republic?
Mazzini; Garibaldi; Napoleon lll
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What was Mazzini's involvement in the Roman Republic?
Head of triumvirate; 100 days of power; liberal reforms
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What 2 liberal reforms did Mazzini make whilst in the triumvirate of the Roman Republic?
abolished death penalty; dozen newspapers set up
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What was Garibaldi's involvement in the Roman Republic?
Fought well for Mazzini's Roman Republic; beaten by Napoleon lll
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What was Napoleon lll's involvement in the Roman Republic?
Benefitted with Church approval for crushing Roman Republic; felt bad afterwards, tried to think of what to 'do for Italy'
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What were 2 other failures of 1848/49, along with the Roman Republic?
Venetian Republic; Piedmont (C.A. defeated at Battle of Custoza AND Battle of Novara, abdicated to Vic. Em. ll)
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Why did the Roman Republic & revolutions of 1848/49 fail?
Lack of popular support; lack of unity; lack of international allies
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When did Vic. Em. ll appoint Cavour as P.M. of Piedmont?
1852
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When was the Crimean War?
1854 - 56
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Who was involved in the Crimean War?
Br. Fr. & Piedmont VS. RUSSIA
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What were 3 reasons why Piedmont (and Cavour) joined the Crimean War?
International reputation would be improved; gain friendship of Br. and Fr.; PEACE CONFERENCE
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Where did Napoleon lll and Cavour meet?
1856 Paris Peace Conference
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When was the Paris Peace Conference?
1856
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When was the Plombieres meeting?
1858
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What did Cavour ask Napoleon lll at the Plombieres meeting?
To support Piedmont in a war against Au.
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What are 4 reasons why Napoleon lll agreed to help Cavour in a war against Austria?
Retrieval of Nice and Savoy; compensation for R.R., 'doing something for Italy'; Austrian enemy; Sincere supporter of Italian independence, Carbonaro!
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What did Cavour promise to give Napoleon lll if he helped him in a war against Austria?
Nice and Savoy
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When was the Austrian-Piedmont war?
1859
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What is the war of 1859 often referred to as?
SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
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What were the two battles involved in the SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE?
Magenta / Solferino - bloodbaths!
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Who lost at the 1859 battles of Magenta and Solferino?
Austria
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How did Cavour rile up anti-Austrian sentiment & nationalism?
'cry of anguish!'; mobilised troops
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Why did Napoleon lll get cold feet about the 1859 war with Austria
Austria HAD to be appear to be the aggressor.
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Who declared war in 1859 b/w Austria and Piedmont (and Napoleon lll)?
Austria
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Why did Austria declare war in 1859?
Cavour refused to demobilise his troops
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What were the consequences of the SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1859?
N. lll signed armistice w/o consulting Cav.; Piedmont received Lombardy thru. ceding to Fr.; Central Duchies restored; Au. kept Venetia and remained powerful force in Italy
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What conference followed the war of 1859?
Peace of Villafranca
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What was Cavour's reaction at the Peace of Villafranca?
Disliked Au. still controlled Venetia; furious w/ Central Duchies; furious that he wasn't consulted
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Why did Cavour resign following the Peace of Villafranca?
Wanted to continue Piedmont-Austria war w/o France. Vic. Em. refused so he RESIGNED.
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What happened to Piedmont following Cavour's resignation?
EXPANSION; gained annexes (e.g. Modena and Parma)
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When did Cavour return as Prime Minister?
1860
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Nice and Savoy were given to N lll as promised. What was Garibaldi's reaction to this?
Nice was his hometown. He was FURIOUS.
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Which revolts broke out in 10 that fuelled Garibaldi into action?
Naples/Sicily - possible civil war
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What was Garibaldi's plan for unification?
Naples, Papal States, ROME.
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Why didn't Cavour appreciate Garibaldi's "Expedition of the Thousand" and attempt for unification?
Wanted him out of the limelight; Sicily was too poor & backward to be taken over by Piedmont
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Who actually urged Garibaldi to support the revolt in Sicily in 1860?
Mazzini
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Where did Vic. Em. ll and Garibaldi meet?
Meeting at Teano
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What did Garibaldi agree at the Meeting at Teano?
To hand over conquests to Vic. Em. ll & retire to Caprera
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Garibaldi was defeated in 1862... where?
Aspromonte
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When was the Battle of Aspromonte?
1862
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When was the THIRD WAR OF INDEPENDENCE?
1866
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What happened at the THIRD WAR OF INDEPENDENCE?
Au. gave Venetia to Italy (ceded to Napoleon)
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What happened to the French garrison in Rome that encouraged Italian Unification?
Napoleon's troops had to be taken back bc of outbreak of Franco-Prussion war.
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When was unification completed?
Vic. Em. ll sent troops into Rome / defeated Papal troops / 1870 WOOOOOOOOOO!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the Italian peninsula look like when Napoleon invaded in 1796?

Back

A complicated patchwork of states; separate states

Card 3

Front

What were the 3 main regions in the North of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the two main regions in the Centre of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the main region in the South of Italy prior to Napoleonic rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Mariam


Thank you soo much, this isver helpfull

NZLHistory

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