IT revision, pages 25-27

What is malware?
This is software designed to cause harm to your IT system, such as deleting, altering or stealing data.
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What are hackers?
A user who exploits weaknesses in IT systems in order to gain unauthorised access is known as a hacker. This can be done to steal, alter or delete data.
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What is an ethical hacker?
Someone who is a lawful hacker, they're employed by businesses to try and find weaknesses in their IT systems and networks so they can improve it.
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What is phishing?
A person who pretends to be representing large companies such as your bank or businesses such as Amazon in an attempt to gain your personal information.
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What is meant by accidental damage?
This can often be caused through human error such as failure to save work properly or spilling substances on devices.
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What can all of the previous malware do to individuals?
Can lead to identity theft or bank fraud.
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What is identity fraud?
When someone steals someone else's personal information to open bank accounts, obtain loans, take out mobile phone contracts etc.
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What is bank fraud?
When a criminal user gains access to your bank account and uses it to withdraw cash and purchase items.
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What can phishing etc do to businesses?
It can impact their reputation (due to people not trusting the business) and could result in a loss of income (due to fines and theft of business money).
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How can you protect your data, devices and systems?
File permission and access levels, Backup and recovery procedures, Passwords, Protocols, Digital certificates, Physical access control.
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How do digital certificates protect data?
It allows secure data transfer using public key encryption.
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How do protocols protect data?
They define data transfer processes to ensure secure transfer.
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What is antivirus software?
It detects and removes viruses and other malware from a computer system.
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What are firewalls?
They monitor network traffic in and out of an IT system. They block suspicious traffic to prevent unauthorised access.
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What is encryption?
The conversion of data into an unreadable code known as cipher text. It can only be read with the encryption key.
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How do we encrypt stored and transmitted data?
We encrypt our hard disks so even if someone gained access to the system they would not be able to read the contents. We also encrypt data while it is being transmitted so that if it is intercepted it cannot be read.
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What is the Data Protection Act?
It is a piece of legislation which protects peoples personal data held by others. It ensures the privacy and proper use of peoples data and gives rights to individuals on what data is collected and how it is used.
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How does the DPA impact on businesses?
It increases the costs to meet requirements for data security. Limited in how much data can be gathered and how its used. Fines of up to £500,000 if the act is breached by businesses.
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How does the DPA impact individuals?
Personal data collected by others is more likely to be kept secure and not be misused. Compensation can be claimed for any harm caused due to misuse of an individuals data.
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What is the Computer Misuse Act of 1990?
It protects against attacks on IT systems used to gain unauthorised access and steal or cause damage to data. It also covers threats like hacking and spreading malware.
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How does the Computer Misuse Act implicate businesses?
Organisations' computer systems are more secure due to the deterrent of legal punishments for attacks on systems. It requires organisations to develop and adhere to effective security policies.
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How does the Computer Misuse Act implicate individuals?
Provides protection from attacks to a persons computer systems. Those who carry out attacks can face unlimited fines and up to 10 years in prison.
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What are codes of practise?
They're not legal requirements like the DPA however they're encouraged in businesses.
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What do codes of practise aim to do?
Help support compliance with the DPA and computer misuse act and other legislation. Ensure data is not mishandled which would lead to a bad reputation. Give individuals confidence that the data they supply to organisations will be safe.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are hackers?


A user who exploits weaknesses in IT systems in order to gain unauthorised access is known as a hacker. This can be done to steal, alter or delete data.

Card 3


What is an ethical hacker?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is phishing?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is meant by accidental damage?


Preview of the front of card 5
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