Issues With Classification

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Multiple Manuals: Different countries, different criteria.
Leads to inconsistencies & low IRR. Motjabi & Nicholson - 50 pychiatriststs. Copeland - 2% of 194 UK vs 69% of 134 US. Beck - 4 psychiatrists agreed 54%.
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Construct Validity: SZ developed from opinions, no proven cause
Leads to misdiagnosis, Motjabi & Nicholson - bizarre delusions - subjective
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Aetiological Validity: No definitive cause, affects diagnosis. not scientifically valid
Hard to establish a common aetiology, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy symptoms similar to SZ, drugs.
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Cultural Differences: SZ diagnosed more in African-Americans, seeing visions is positive in one culture and SZ in another, ethnocentric bias affects accuracy and therefore validity
Clinicians over/underestimate problems in members of other cultures, Winter - psychotherapy, types of pyschiatrist
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Too Many Symptoms: Allerdyce (2006) symptoms do not define specific syndrome. Can have any combination of symptoms, classed as SZ
SZ can overlap w/ depression, etc. Ellason & Ross - DID more SZ symptoms than SZ's, suggest no single underlying cause.
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Positive Symptoms: Easily identifiable, exaggerated behaviours
Hallucinations, delusions, disorganised behaviour, catatonic motor behaviour
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Negative Symptoms: More difficult to identify, loss of normal funtioning
Affective flattening, Alogia, Avolition (Can be confused for symptoms of depression)
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Schizophrenia: 'A group of symptoms that are characterised as a loss of reality'.
Paranoid SZ - mostly positive, Disorganised SZ - both, Catatonic SZ - mostly negative.
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Card 2

Front

Leads to misdiagnosis, Motjabi & Nicholson - bizarre delusions - subjective

Back

Construct Validity: SZ developed from opinions, no proven cause

Card 3

Front

Hard to establish a common aetiology, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy symptoms similar to SZ, drugs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Clinicians over/underestimate problems in members of other cultures, Winter - psychotherapy, types of pyschiatrist

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

SZ can overlap w/ depression, etc. Ellason & Ross - DID more SZ symptoms than SZ's, suggest no single underlying cause.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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