issues + debates ; nature-nurture debate

- the debate
1 of 69
+ nature
2 of 69
early nativists like descartes argued himan characteristics and even some aspects of knowledge are innate and result of?
3 of 69
in contrast empiricists and locke argued what?
mind is blank slate @ brithupon which learning and experience writes result of environment
4 of 69
what is used to assess heredity?
heritability coefficient
5 of 69
numerical figure ranging from?
0 - 1.0
6 of 69
which indicates extent to which characteristic has?
genetic basis
7 of 69
what is the general figure for heritability in IQ?
8 of 69
which suggests?
both genetics and environment are important factors
9 of 69
+ nurture
10 of 69
why does the concept of nurture and enviroonmental influences require further clarification?
'the environmnet' is too brad
11 of 69
what did lerner identify?
different levels of the environment
12 of 69
can be defined in narrow pre-natal terms like?
pyshical / psych state in pregnancy
13 of 69
or more generally post-natal like?
social condts grew up in / cultural and historical context
14 of 69
- relative importance of heredity and environment
15 of 69
in practical sense why is nature-nurture impossible to answer?
environmental influence begins as soon as child is born and so both are so cloosely entertwined
16 of 69
for instnace its hard to tell whether high concordance rates are results of either?
shared genetics / shared upbringing
17 of 69
as such the focus of nature-nurture has changed in recent years and psychs now ask what?
what the relative contribution of each influence is in terms of what we think and do
18 of 69
+ the interactionist approach
19 of 69
like seeing infants and parents attach as two way street what is it about nature and nurture reall?
nature creates nurture ; heredity and environment interact
20 of 69
+ diathesis-stress model
21 of 69
what is the diathesis?
bio/genetic vulnerability
22 of 69
and the stressor?
bio/environmental trigger
23 of 69
so diathesis-stress model suggests psychopathology is caused by?
bio/genetic vulnerability only expressed when copled with bio/env trigger
24 of 69
tienari found in group of finnish adoptees those most likely to develop schizophrenia had which two things?
bio relatives with disorder history AND dysfunctional relainships with adopted families
25 of 69
+ epigeneticsl
26 of 69
refers to change in genetic activity without changing?
genetic code
27 of 69
process that happens through life caused by?
interaction with environment
28 of 69
aspects of lifestyle and events we encounter leave?
epigenetic 'marks' on DNA
29 of 69
these marks tell bodies what?
which genes to ignore and which to use
30 of 69
and in turn may go on and influence?
genetic codes of our children
31 of 69
therefore introducing 3rd element to nature-nurture which is?
life experience of previous generations
32 of 69
dias and ressler gave male lab mice electric shocks everytime exposed to smell of?
33 of 69
as any behaviourist would predict what happened?
mice showed fear as soon as presented
34 of 69
and what happened to children?
did same thing even though hadn't been exposed to acetophenone beofre or had shocks
35 of 69
so did who?
36 of 69
37 of 69
- implications of nativism and empiricism
38 of 69
nativists suggest anatomy is destiny in that?
inherited genetic make-up determines characteristics and behaviour
39 of 69
while environment?
little input
40 of 69
this extreme determinist stance has led to controversy such as attempting to?
link race / genetics / intelligence and application of eugenics
41 of 69
in contrast empiricists would suggest behaviour can be changed how?
altering environmental conditions
42 of 69
behaviour shaping has had practical applications where?
43 of 69
because what jappens with desirable behaviours?
selectively reinforced
44 of 69
and undesireable?
punished / ignored
45 of 69
- shared and unshared environments
46 of 69
research attempting to tease out env influence is complicated by fact that?
even siblings raised in same family may not have had exact same upbringing
47 of 69
idea of shared and unshared environments suggests what?
individual differences mean siblings may experience life differently
48 of 69
this would explain what finding about MZ twins reared together?
don't show perfect concordance rates
49 of 69
which supports what view?
heredity and env cannot be meaningfull separated
50 of 69
- constructivism
51 of 69
constructivism is the notion that?
genes and env interact
52 of 69
ppl create own nurture by actively selecting which environemtns
those appropriate for their nature
53 of 69
this environment then affect?
54 of 69
plomin refers to this as?
niche-picking / niche-building
55 of 69
further evidence that what is impossible and illogical?
attempts to separate nature and nurture
56 of 69
57 of 69
- genotype
58 of 69
theory gene-environment interaction with three types which are?
passive interaction / evocative interaction / active interaction
59 of 69
in passive interaction what happnes?
parents genes influence the way they treat their children like musically gifted parents encouraging music engacgement
60 of 69
evocative interaction?
child's genes influence and shape environment they grow up in (musically talented kid gets special opps0
61 of 69
and active interaction?
child creates own environment through selected ppl / experiences (child chooses similar musical friends and seeks musical experiences)
62 of 69
this again points to?
complex multi-layered relationship between nature and nurture
63 of 69
- relationship to other debates
64 of 69
strong commitment to either nature or nurture crorresponds to belief in?
hard determinism
65 of 69
nativists believe?
anatomy is destiny
66 of 69
while empiricists?
interaction with env is all
67 of 69
so nativists equate to?
biological determinism
68 of 69
and empiricism?
environmental determinism
69 of 69

Other cards in this set

Card 2


+ nature



Card 3


early nativists like descartes argued himan characteristics and even some aspects of knowledge are innate and result of?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


in contrast empiricists and locke argued what?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is used to assess heredity?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all issues + debates resources »