issues + debates ; nature-nurture debate

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- the debate
dgdg
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+ nature
dfgd
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early nativists like descartes argued himan characteristics and even some aspects of knowledge are innate and result of?
heredity
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in contrast empiricists and locke argued what?
mind is blank slate @ brithupon which learning and experience writes result of environment
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what is used to assess heredity?
heritability coefficient
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numerical figure ranging from?
0 - 1.0
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which indicates extent to which characteristic has?
genetic basis
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what is the general figure for heritability in IQ?
0.5
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which suggests?
both genetics and environment are important factors
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+ nurture
dfgdfg
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why does the concept of nurture and enviroonmental influences require further clarification?
'the environmnet' is too brad
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what did lerner identify?
different levels of the environment
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can be defined in narrow pre-natal terms like?
pyshical / psych state in pregnancy
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or more generally post-natal like?
social condts grew up in / cultural and historical context
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- relative importance of heredity and environment
fgdfg
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in practical sense why is nature-nurture impossible to answer?
environmental influence begins as soon as child is born and so both are so cloosely entertwined
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for instnace its hard to tell whether high concordance rates are results of either?
shared genetics / shared upbringing
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as such the focus of nature-nurture has changed in recent years and psychs now ask what?
what the relative contribution of each influence is in terms of what we think and do
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+ the interactionist approach
dfgdf
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like seeing infants and parents attach as two way street what is it about nature and nurture reall?
nature creates nurture ; heredity and environment interact
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+ diathesis-stress model
dffgdfg
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what is the diathesis?
bio/genetic vulnerability
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and the stressor?
bio/environmental trigger
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so diathesis-stress model suggests psychopathology is caused by?
bio/genetic vulnerability only expressed when copled with bio/env trigger
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tienari found in group of finnish adoptees those most likely to develop schizophrenia had which two things?
bio relatives with disorder history AND dysfunctional relainships with adopted families
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+ epigeneticsl
dfdfgd
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refers to change in genetic activity without changing?
genetic code
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process that happens through life caused by?
interaction with environment
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aspects of lifestyle and events we encounter leave?
epigenetic 'marks' on DNA
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these marks tell bodies what?
which genes to ignore and which to use
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and in turn may go on and influence?
genetic codes of our children
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therefore introducing 3rd element to nature-nurture which is?
life experience of previous generations
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dias and ressler gave male lab mice electric shocks everytime exposed to smell of?
acetophenone
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as any behaviourist would predict what happened?
mice showed fear as soon as presented
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and what happened to children?
did same thing even though hadn't been exposed to acetophenone beofre or had shocks
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so did who?
grandchildren
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EVALUATION
DGD
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- implications of nativism and empiricism
gdfgfd
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nativists suggest anatomy is destiny in that?
inherited genetic make-up determines characteristics and behaviour
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while environment?
little input
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this extreme determinist stance has led to controversy such as attempting to?
link race / genetics / intelligence and application of eugenics
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in contrast empiricists would suggest behaviour can be changed how?
altering environmental conditions
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behaviour shaping has had practical applications where?
therapy
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because what jappens with desirable behaviours?
selectively reinforced
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and undesireable?
punished / ignored
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- shared and unshared environments
dfgd
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research attempting to tease out env influence is complicated by fact that?
even siblings raised in same family may not have had exact same upbringing
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idea of shared and unshared environments suggests what?
individual differences mean siblings may experience life differently
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this would explain what finding about MZ twins reared together?
don't show perfect concordance rates
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which supports what view?
heredity and env cannot be meaningfull separated
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- constructivism
dfgd
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constructivism is the notion that?
genes and env interact
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ppl create own nurture by actively selecting which environemtns
those appropriate for their nature
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this environment then affect?
development
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plomin refers to this as?
niche-picking / niche-building
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further evidence that what is impossible and illogical?
attempts to separate nature and nurture
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EXTRA
DFGDFG
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- genotype
dgd
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theory gene-environment interaction with three types which are?
passive interaction / evocative interaction / active interaction
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in passive interaction what happnes?
parents genes influence the way they treat their children like musically gifted parents encouraging music engacgement
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evocative interaction?
child's genes influence and shape environment they grow up in (musically talented kid gets special opps0
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and active interaction?
child creates own environment through selected ppl / experiences (child chooses similar musical friends and seeks musical experiences)
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this again points to?
complex multi-layered relationship between nature and nurture
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- relationship to other debates
ergfd
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strong commitment to either nature or nurture crorresponds to belief in?
hard determinism
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nativists believe?
anatomy is destiny
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while empiricists?
interaction with env is all
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so nativists equate to?
biological determinism
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and empiricism?
environmental determinism
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Card 2

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+ nature

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dfgd

Card 3

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early nativists like descartes argued himan characteristics and even some aspects of knowledge are innate and result of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

in contrast empiricists and locke argued what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is used to assess heredity?

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