issues + debates ; holism + reductionism

HideShow resource information
HOLISM + REDUCTIONISM
DGDFG
1 of 61
group german researchers called gestalt psuchs famously declared?
'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'
2 of 61
view is basis of holism which is the idea that?
any attempt to break up behaviour and experience is inappropriate as these can only be undershood by analysing person as a whole
3 of 61
view shared by who?
humanistic psychologists
4 of 61
who saw successful therapy as therapy that did what?
brought together all aspects of whole person
5 of 61
reducitonism however does what?
analyses behaviour by breaking down to constituent parts
6 of 61
based on scientific principle of?
parsimony
7 of 61
which is the isea that?
all phenomena should be explained using most basic principles
8 of 61
- levels of explanation in psych
dfdgd
9 of 61
notion levels of explanation suggests hat?
different ways of viewing same phenomena
10 of 61
e.g OCD may be understood in socio-cultural context as?
producing behaviour some would regard odd / irrational
11 of 61
at psychological level understood as?
experience of obsessive thoughts
12 of 61
@ physiological level?
hypersensitivity of basa ganglia
13 of 61
and at neurochemical level?
underproduction of serotonin
14 of 61
each level more what than ebfore?
reductionism
15 of 61
researchers who favour reductinist accounts of behaviour would see psychology as ultimately being replaced by?
explanations derived from sciences lower down on hierarchy like biology or chemistry
16 of 61
- biological reductionism
dfgd
17 of 61
baed on premise that we are all what?
biological organisms made up of physiological structures / processes
18 of 61
thus all behaviour @ some level biological and can be explained through which 4 influences?
neurochemical / neurophysiological / evolutionary / genetic
19 of 61
this assumption successfully pplied to number topic areas like psychoactive drug effects have cintrubuted much to understanding of?
neural processes
20 of 61
and fact it might be possilbe to explain what @ biochem level?
mental disorders lie ocd / sz
21 of 61
- environmental (stimulus-response) reductionism
dfgd
22 of 61
what approach built on this?
behaviourist
23 of 61
study observable behaviour only adnd in doing so beak complex learning up into?
simple stimulus-response links
24 of 61
measurable within?
lab
25 of 61
thus key unit of analysis occurs at what level?
physical
26 of 61
and doesn't occur @ what level?
psychological level
27 of 61
mind regared as black box how?
irrelevant to understanding of behaviour
28 of 61
process of thought itself seen by early behaviourist watson as form of what?
sub-vocal speech
29 of 61
characterised by what same as any other behaviour?
physical movement
30 of 61
EVALUATION
DFGDF
31 of 61
:) holism
dfgd
32 of 61
often there are aspects of social behaviour that only emerge within?
group context
33 of 61
and cannot be understood at level of?
individual group members
34 of 61
for instance what couldn't be understood about the stanford prison experiment by studying pps as individuals?
conformity to social roles / de-individuation
35 of 61
what interaction was important?
people between and group behaviour
36 of 61
this shows holistic explanations provide what better than reductionist approaches?
more complete and global understanding of behaviour
37 of 61
:( holism
dg
38 of 61
tend not to lend themselves to what method?
rigorous scientic testing
39 of 61
and can become more what as they become more complex?
vague / speculative
40 of 61
for example humanistic psychlogy criticised for lack of?
empirical evidence
41 of 61
and instead seen by many as?
loose set of concepts
42 of 61
higher level explanations that combine many different perspectives presetn researchers with what pracitcal dilemma?
if we accpet that there are many factors that contribute to say depression it becomes difficult to establish which is most influential and which to use as therapy basis
43 of 61
this suggests lower level explanations more appropriate when it comes to what?
finding solutions for real-world problems
44 of 61
:) reductionism
fgfdgd
45 of 61
reductionist approach often forms basis of?
scientific research
46 of 61
in order to create operationalised variables its necessary to do what?
break target behaviours to constituent parts
47 of 61
this makes it possible to do what in a way that is meaningful and reliabe?
conduct experiments / record observations
48 of 61
also behaviourist approach able to demonstrate what in lab?
how complex learning could be broken down to simple stimulus-response links
49 of 61
this gives psych greater cred placing it with what in reductionist hierarchy?
natural sciences
50 of 61
:( reductionism
dgd
51 of 61
accused of oversimplifying complex phenomena leading to loss of?
validity
52 of 61
explanations that operate @ gene / neurotrans / neuron level don't include analysis of?
social context
53 of 61
and this is where behaviour in question may do what?
derive meaning
54 of 61
like what about pointing fingers?
the physiological process involved in pointing finger will be same regardless of context
55 of 61
but analysis of this won;t tell us what?
why the finger was pointed
56 of 61
this means what for reductionist explanations?
can only ever form part of an explanation
57 of 61
EVAL EXTRA
DFGF
58 of 61
- interactionist approach
dgdfg
59 of 61
interactionism considers what about different levels of explanation?
how they combine and interact
60 of 61
an example of interactionist approach is what in sz?
diathesis-stress model
61 of 61

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

group german researchers called gestalt psuchs famously declared?

Back

'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'

Card 3

Front

view is basis of holism which is the idea that?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

view shared by who?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

who saw successful therapy as therapy that did what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all issues + debates resources »