issues + debates ; holism + reductionism

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group german researchers called gestalt psuchs famously declared?
'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'
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view is basis of holism which is the idea that?
any attempt to break up behaviour and experience is inappropriate as these can only be undershood by analysing person as a whole
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view shared by who?
humanistic psychologists
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who saw successful therapy as therapy that did what?
brought together all aspects of whole person
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reducitonism however does what?
analyses behaviour by breaking down to constituent parts
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based on scientific principle of?
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which is the isea that?
all phenomena should be explained using most basic principles
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- levels of explanation in psych
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notion levels of explanation suggests hat?
different ways of viewing same phenomena
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e.g OCD may be understood in socio-cultural context as?
producing behaviour some would regard odd / irrational
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at psychological level understood as?
experience of obsessive thoughts
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@ physiological level?
hypersensitivity of basa ganglia
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and at neurochemical level?
underproduction of serotonin
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each level more what than ebfore?
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researchers who favour reductinist accounts of behaviour would see psychology as ultimately being replaced by?
explanations derived from sciences lower down on hierarchy like biology or chemistry
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- biological reductionism
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baed on premise that we are all what?
biological organisms made up of physiological structures / processes
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thus all behaviour @ some level biological and can be explained through which 4 influences?
neurochemical / neurophysiological / evolutionary / genetic
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this assumption successfully pplied to number topic areas like psychoactive drug effects have cintrubuted much to understanding of?
neural processes
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and fact it might be possilbe to explain what @ biochem level?
mental disorders lie ocd / sz
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- environmental (stimulus-response) reductionism
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what approach built on this?
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study observable behaviour only adnd in doing so beak complex learning up into?
simple stimulus-response links
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measurable within?
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thus key unit of analysis occurs at what level?
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and doesn't occur @ what level?
psychological level
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mind regared as black box how?
irrelevant to understanding of behaviour
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process of thought itself seen by early behaviourist watson as form of what?
sub-vocal speech
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characterised by what same as any other behaviour?
physical movement
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:) holism
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often there are aspects of social behaviour that only emerge within?
group context
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and cannot be understood at level of?
individual group members
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for instance what couldn't be understood about the stanford prison experiment by studying pps as individuals?
conformity to social roles / de-individuation
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what interaction was important?
people between and group behaviour
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this shows holistic explanations provide what better than reductionist approaches?
more complete and global understanding of behaviour
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:( holism
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tend not to lend themselves to what method?
rigorous scientic testing
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and can become more what as they become more complex?
vague / speculative
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for example humanistic psychlogy criticised for lack of?
empirical evidence
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and instead seen by many as?
loose set of concepts
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higher level explanations that combine many different perspectives presetn researchers with what pracitcal dilemma?
if we accpet that there are many factors that contribute to say depression it becomes difficult to establish which is most influential and which to use as therapy basis
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this suggests lower level explanations more appropriate when it comes to what?
finding solutions for real-world problems
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:) reductionism
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reductionist approach often forms basis of?
scientific research
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in order to create operationalised variables its necessary to do what?
break target behaviours to constituent parts
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this makes it possible to do what in a way that is meaningful and reliabe?
conduct experiments / record observations
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also behaviourist approach able to demonstrate what in lab?
how complex learning could be broken down to simple stimulus-response links
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this gives psych greater cred placing it with what in reductionist hierarchy?
natural sciences
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:( reductionism
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accused of oversimplifying complex phenomena leading to loss of?
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explanations that operate @ gene / neurotrans / neuron level don't include analysis of?
social context
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and this is where behaviour in question may do what?
derive meaning
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like what about pointing fingers?
the physiological process involved in pointing finger will be same regardless of context
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but analysis of this won;t tell us what?
why the finger was pointed
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this means what for reductionist explanations?
can only ever form part of an explanation
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- interactionist approach
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interactionism considers what about different levels of explanation?
how they combine and interact
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an example of interactionist approach is what in sz?
diathesis-stress model
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group german researchers called gestalt psuchs famously declared?


'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'

Card 3


view is basis of holism which is the idea that?


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Card 4


view shared by who?


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who saw successful therapy as therapy that did what?


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