issues + debates ; gender + culture ; gender bias

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- universality and bias
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psychologists are people with beliefs and values influenced by?
social / historical context
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thus what may be an inevitable aspect?
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despite arguments that can be made that psychs have discovered?
objective and value free facts
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also undermines psych claims to universality which is the idea that?
conclusions drawn can be applied to everyone anywhere regardless culture / time
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- gender bias
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what is alpha bias?
that wich exagerrates / overestimates differences between sexes
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most likely to do what to women?
devalue in relation to males
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gimmie an example of alpha bias?
socioliological theory of relationship formation
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which explains human sexual attraction and behaviour through principle of?
survival efficienty
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in males best interest to try impregnate as many women as possible why?
pass on genes
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for female best chance of preserving genes is to do what?
ensure rurvival of her offspring
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central premise is what about sexual promiscuity?
genetically determined in males but females are going against their nature
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in contrast what does beta bias dp?
ignore / underestimate differences between men and women
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this often occurs when what happens in research?
females not included so findings just generalised to both sees
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whats the big boy example?
fight or flight
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because what about early research?
based exclusively on males
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more recently researchers have suggested female biology has evovled to do what with this?
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shifting instead to?
tend and befriend
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- androcentrism
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one possible consequence of which type of bias?
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if our understanding of all normal behaviour is drawn from male research then what about behaviour that deviates?
judged abnormal / deficient
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what does this mean for female behaviour?
misunderstood / pathologised
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for example what about PMS?
feminists dont like bc it trivialises female experience
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critics claim PMS is a social construction that does what?
medicalises female emotions
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male anger on the other hand is seen as?
rational response to external pressures
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- implications of gender bias
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gender-biased research may create?
misleading assumptions about female behaviour
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fail to challenge?
negative stereotypes
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and validate?
discriminatory practices
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may provide scientific justification to deny women?
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gender bias not just methodological problem but may have damaging consequences for?
women in the real world
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- sexism within research process
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lack of women in senior research level means?
female concerns may bot be reflected in research questions asked
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which gender are more likely to have research published?
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and research that finds evidence of gender similarities or diggerences appear more in journals?
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why may lab experiment further disadvantage women?
inequitable relationship with male researcher who has power to label them unreasonable / unable complete tasks
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this means psuchology may be guilty of forming?
institutional sexism that creates bias in theory and research
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- reflexivity
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many modern researchers beginning to see what baout themselves?
the effect their own values / assumptions have on work
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rather than seeing bias as problem that may threaten objectiveneess they view it?
crucial aspect of research process
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e.g lambert and dambrin studies wimen in executive positions in accountancy firms and included what?
reflection on how their-gender related experiences inf their reading of events
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reflexivity is important in psych and may lead to?
greater awareness of personal biases in future rsrch
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- essentialism
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what is the essentialist perspective/
gender difference is inevitable and fixed
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what did walkerdine in ;30s report about intellectual activity like uni in women?
would shrivel ovaries and harm chances of birth
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essentialist accounts in psuch are often what disguised as biological fact?
politically motivated arguments
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this often creates what in way same behaviour viewed from m/f perspective?
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- feminist psychology
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worrell put fwd number of criteria that should be adhered to in order to?
avoid gender bias
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women should be studied in?
real-life meaningful conexts
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and genuinely pp in research rather than?
being objects of study
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diversity within women should be studied rather than?
just comparing to men
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and there should be greater emphasis on collaborative research methods that collect what kind of data?
qualitative > numerical
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- universality and bias



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psychologists are people with beliefs and values influenced by?


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thus what may be an inevitable aspect?


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despite arguments that can be made that psychs have discovered?


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