issues + debates ; free will + determinism

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- free will
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notion suggests that as human beings we are essentially?
self-determining and free to choose our thoughts / actions
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belief in free will doesn't deny bio/env forces w/ some influence but still implies we can do what?
reject those forces as masters of our own destiny
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this is a view of human behaviour advocated by which approach?
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- determinism
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determinism proposes what?
free will has no place in explaining behaviour
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+ hard determinism
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what does this suggest?
all human behaviour has cause and should be possible to identify and describe there
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this position is compatible with aims of?
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which are?
to uncover causal laws thatt govern thought / action
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and always assume everyhting we think and do is dictated by?
internal / external forces we can't control
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how may some view this?
too extreme
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+ soft determinism
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this position later became an important feature of which approach?
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while acknowledging all action has cause they also suggest what?
some room for manoeuvre in that ppl have conscious mental ctril over the way they behave
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william james thought while its the job of scientists to explain the many determining forces that act upon us this doesn't detract fro?
the freedom we have to make rational choices erryday
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- biological, environmental + psychic determinism
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+ biological determinism
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which approach?
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no doubt that what aren't under our conscious ctrl?
many physiological / neurological processes
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in addition lots of behaviours / characteristics are thought to have what basis?
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and research has demonstrated effect of hormones like?
testosterone + aggression
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modern biopsychs would also regocnise mediating influence of?
environment on bio structures
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but this simply means we are?
doubly-determined in ways we can't ctrl
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+ environmentl determinism
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skinner famously described free will as?
an illusion
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and argued all behaviour is result of?
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our experience of choice is merely sum total of?
reinforcement contingencies that acted upon us through life
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though we may think we act independently our behaviour has been shaped by?
env events / agents of socialisation
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+ psychic determinism
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freud agreed free will is an illusion but placed more emphasis on influence of?
biological drives and instincts
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his brand of determinism sees human behaviour determined and directed by?
unconscious conflicts repressed in childhood
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there's no such thing as accidents according to hum and even somethign like a slip of the tongue can be explained by?
underlying authority of unconscious
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- scientific emphasis on causal explanations
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one of basic principles of science is that every event in universe has cause and causes can be explained?
using general laws
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knowledge of causes + formation of laws are important why?
allow scientists to predict / ctrl future events
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in psych, lab experiment enables researcher to do what in attempt to precisely control + predicty human behaviour?
simulate condts and remove all other extraneoys vareabls
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:) determinism
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determinism is consistent wiht?
aims of science
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what notion places psych on equal footing with more est sciences?
human behaviour is orderly and obeys laws
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value of such research is that prediction / ctrl human behaviour has led to development of?
treatments / therapies / behavioural interveitions that made drugs
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experience of mental disorders cast doubt on free will why?
they have no ctrl over thoughts and behaviour
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so at least in these terms behaviour would be seen?
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:( determinism
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hard determinism is not consistent with the way what operates?
our legal system
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also, despite scientific credentials what about determinism as an approach leaves popper quacking?
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because its besed on the idea that causes of human behaviour will always exist even if?
not found
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and as a basic principle this is?
impossible to prove wrong
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this suggests that deterministic approach to behaviour may not be?
as scientific as it appears
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:) free will
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everyday experience gives the impression we are constantly exercising free will through choices and this gives what to concept of free will?
face validity
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research also suggests those with internal locus of control tend to be more?
mentally healthy
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roberts et al demonstrated that adolescents w/ strong belief in fatalism were @ significantly greater risk for developing?
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:( free will
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libet and soono have demonstrated that brain activity determining outcome of simple choices may predate?
our knowledge of having a choice
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researcers found activity related to whether to press a button with left or right hand occurs in brain up to ten seconds before?
pps report being consciously aware of making decision
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this shows even basic experiences of free will are decided and determined?
before we/re aware
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


- free will



Card 3


notion suggests that as human beings we are essentially?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


belief in free will doesn't deny bio/env forces w/ some influence but still implies we can do what?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


this is a view of human behaviour advocated by which approach?


Preview of the front of card 5
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