Issues and debates

  • Created by: IB122
  • Created on: 06-03-17 16:33
Universality
Any underlying characteristic of human beings that is capable of being applied to all despite differences of experience and upbringing. Gender bias and culture bias threaten the universality of findings in psychology.
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Gender bias
When considering human behaviour, bias is a tendency to treat one individual or group in a different way. In context, psychological research may offer a view that does not represent experience of men and women.
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Androcentrism
Male-centred: when normal behaviour is judged according to a male standard resulting in females often being judged as abnormal.
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Alpha bias
Psychological theories that suggest there are real, enduring differences between men and women that enhance/undervalue member of either sex (usually women).
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Beta bias
Theories that ignore or minimise differences between sexes.
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Cultural bias
Refers to a tendency to ignore cultural difference and interpret all phenomena through the lens of one's own culture.
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Ethnocentrism
Judging other cultures by the standards and values of one's own culture. In its extreme form, it assumes that one's culture is superior compared to others leading to prejudice/discrimination.
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Cultural relativism
The idea that norms and values, as well as ethics and moral standards are only meaningful if understood within specific social and cultural contexts.
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Free-will
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces.
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Determinism
The view that an individual's behaviour is shaped by internal/external forces rather than their will to do something.
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Hard determinism
Implies that free will is not possible as our behaviours are always caused by exteral or internal events beyond our control.
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Soft determinism
All events including human behavour have causes but behaviour can also be determined by our conscious choices.
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Biological determination
The belief that behaviour is caused by biolofical influences beyond our control i.e. genetics/hormones.
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Environmental determinism
The belief that behaviour is determined by features of the environment such as rewards or punishment beyond our control.
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Psychic determinism
The belief that behaviour is caused by unconscious conflicts that we cannot control.
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The nature-nurture debate
Concerned with the extent to which aspects of behaviour are products of inherited or acquired characteristics.
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Heredity
The genetic transmission of mental and physical characteristics passed from one generation to another.
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Environment
Any influence on human behaviour that is non-genetic. This may range from pre-natral influences in the womb through to cultural and historical influences at a societal level.
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The interactionist approach
The idea that nature and nurture are linked to such an extent that it des not make sense to separate the two so researchers study how they interact and influence each other.
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Holism
An arguement proposing that it only makes sense to study an indivisible system rather than its constituent parts.
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Reductionism
The belief that human behaviour is best explained by breaking it down into smaller constituent parts.
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Biological reductionism
A form of reductionism which attempts explain social and psychological phenomena at a lower biological level in terms of genes, hormones etc.
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Environmental reductionism
The attempt to explain all behavoiur in terms of stimulus-response links that have been learned through experience.
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Idiographic approach
Derived from the greek idios meaning personal or private. An approach to research that focusses on individual cases as a means of understanding behaviour rather than aiming to formulate general laws.
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Nomothetic approach
Derived from the greek word nomos meaning law, attempting to study human behaviour through development of general principles and universal laws.
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Ethical implications
The impact that psychological research may have in terms of the rights of others, usually participants. This includes, at a societal level, influencing public policy and the way certain groups of people are regarded.
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Social sensitivity
Studies in which there are potential consequences, directly for participants, or those they represent.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When considering human behaviour, bias is a tendency to treat one individual or group in a different way. In context, psychological research may offer a view that does not represent experience of men and women.

Back

Gender bias

Card 3

Front

Male-centred: when normal behaviour is judged according to a male standard resulting in females often being judged as abnormal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Psychological theories that suggest there are real, enduring differences between men and women that enhance/undervalue member of either sex (usually women).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Theories that ignore or minimise differences between sexes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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