Issues and debates - key words

  • Created by: yoot123
  • Created on: 07-12-18 11:10
Alpha bias
exaggerates and over estimates differences between males and females
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Beta bias
Ignoring or minimising differences between male and female
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Androcentrism
A male only sample is seen as the norm universally - anything opposing the male sample is seen as abnormal leading to misunderstanding of female behaviour.
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Ethnocentrism
Believing that ones own cultural group is superior to another - in psychology this usually refers to the assumption that any behaviour that doesn't fit into western culture is abnormal.
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Cultural relativism
The belief that norms, values, ethics etc... can only be meaningful and understood with specific social/cultural contexts.
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Etic approach
Look at behaviour of another culture and try to explain behaviour from the outside.
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Imposed etic
Imposing western cultures on other cultures - leading to bias, conflict, judgement etc..
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Emic approach
Identifying behavioural features specific within that culture - liable to be ignored/misinterpreted as researcher to local emics
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Cultural Bias
A tendency to judge people from another culture.
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Holism
Idea that behaviour should be viewed as whole rather than broken down into smaller parts.
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Reductionism
Believing behaviour can be explained by breaking it down into simpler component parts.
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Environmental Reductionism.
A stimulus response reductionism - behaviourists believe that behaviours can be broken down to a S-R associations and complex behaviours are a chain or S-R associations.
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Biological Reductionism
Refers to the way in which biological psychologists reduce behaviour to physical level, explaining it in terms or neurons etc...
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Nomothetic
Concerned with establishing general laws and using statistical techniques to analyse data.
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Idiographic
Focus on the individual and emphasise the unique personal experience of human nature.
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Interactionist
Argument that multiple levels of explanations are necessary in explaining behaviour.
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Nature-nurture debate
Centres around whether behaviour is caused environmental or biological factors.
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Free will
The belief that humans are in control of their own behaviour - not controlled by enviromental/biological behaviours.
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Biological Determinism
Refers to the idea that all behaviour is innate and determined by genes.
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Psychic Determinism
Claims behaviour is result of childhood experiences and innate drives.
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Environmental Determinism
The view that behaviour is determined by external factors - poses the idea that behaviour is caused by past experiences through operant/classical conditioning.
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Soft determinism
Belief that behaviour is controlled by external factors but only to a certain extent.
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Hard determinism
Strong belief that behaviour is controlled by external factors i.e.biological/environmental factors.
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Social sensitivity
Describes studies where there are potential social consequences for pps or groups of people represented by the search.
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Ethical implications
Considering the possible consequences that a psychology study might have on the rights of people in a wider context not just those involved in the study.
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Universality
It can be applied to people regardless of gender or culture etc...
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ignoring or minimising differences between male and female

Back

Beta bias

Card 3

Front

A male only sample is seen as the norm universally - anything opposing the male sample is seen as abnormal leading to misunderstanding of female behaviour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Believing that ones own cultural group is superior to another - in psychology this usually refers to the assumption that any behaviour that doesn't fit into western culture is abnormal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The belief that norms, values, ethics etc... can only be meaningful and understood with specific social/cultural contexts.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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