Isomerism and Reactions of Organic Compounds

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Structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the double bond.
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cis-trans isomerism
A type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond. The cis isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side. The trans isomer has the H atoms on different sides.
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Homolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radiclas.
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Radical
A species of with an unpaired electron.
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Heterolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ ion) and an anion (- ion).
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Addition reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
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Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms.
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Elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to form an unsaturated molecule.
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Radical substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms.
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction.
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation.
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Termination
The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space.

Back

Stereoisomers

Card 3

Front

A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the double bond.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond. The cis isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side. The trans isomer has the H atoms on different sides.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radiclas.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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