# ISA Keywords

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Accuracy
How close a result/set of results is to the true value. To improve accuracy, one may repeat the experiment and eliminate systematic errors
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Systematic Error
An error that affects the accuracy of an experiment. The amount/value by which the experiment is wrong is the same each time (e.g Zeroing Error)
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Zeroing Error
An error in the experiment caused by equipment not being set to 0 before being used to measure/record the results
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Poor Experimental Set-Up
Systematic error caused by a poor experiment which is not suitable for measuring the true value accurately
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Precision
How close the spread of results around the mean is. High precision means a tight spread of results, whereas a low precision means a wide spread of results.
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Random Error
Random error is an error that is not consistent per measurement and affects the precision (in a detrimental way) of the experiment. Examples include human error and environmental error.
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Human Error
A type of random error caused by human interference in the experiment (e.g shaking hands when measuring, measuring by eye)
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Environmental Error
A random error caused by the environment in which the experiment is taking place.
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Repeatability
A repeatable experiment can be redone by the original experimentor using the same method and/or equipment to get the same results.
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Reproducibility
A reproducible experiment can be redone by a different experimentor using a different method and/or equipment to get the same results as the original experiment.
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Reliability
A reliable experiment has a good repeatability and reproducibility (i.e it can be relied upon to give the correct results and have little or no error).
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Validity
The suitability of an experiment/experimental method to find the answer (i.e if it is a sensible way to find an answer)
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Independent Variable
The variable which the experimentor changes during the experiment. Goes on the X-Axis on a graph
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Dependent Variable
The variable which is measured during the experiment. Goes on the Y-Axis on a graph
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Control Variable(s)
Variable(s) which may affect and interfere with the outcome of the experiment and must, therefore, be controlled and kept the same.
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Positive Correlation
A correlation (link) between the independent and dependent variable in which an increase in the indepedent variable causes an increase in the dependent variable.
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Negative Correlation
A correlation (link) between the independent and dependent variables in which and increase in the independent variable causes a decrease in the dependent variable.
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No-Correlation
Where there is no link or correlation between the two variables (independent and dependent).
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Anomaly/Anomalous Result
Results that do not match the pattern seen in the other data. They should be discarded or retested.
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Resolution
The smallest value a piece of equipment or measuring instrument can measure to (the smallest change in value that gives a change in reading).
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

An error that affects the accuracy of an experiment. The amount/value by which the experiment is wrong is the same each time (e.g Zeroing Error)

Systematic Error

### Card 3

#### Front

An error in the experiment caused by equipment not being set to 0 before being used to measure/record the results

### Card 4

#### Front

Systematic error caused by a poor experiment which is not suitable for measuring the true value accurately

### Card 5

#### Front

How close the spread of results around the mean is. High precision means a tight spread of results, whereas a low precision means a wide spread of results.