Is Psychology a science?

What is the definition of science?
The obstaining and manipulation of objective data in order to form a theory
1 of 47
What is the first argument against psychology being a science?
It is not precise enough to be a science
2 of 47
What is the second reason?
Psychology is required to measure in order to conform to its definition of 'the study of the mind' can not be measured other than through human dissection.
3 of 47
What is this method said to be?
Subjective, hence suggesting that psychology does not reside sufficient accuracy and precision
4 of 47
What does sicence require?
Objectivity and inductive reasoning, taking a specific fact via which a generalised hypothesis is formed
5 of 47
What will this essay discuss?
Precise/objective methodology, Popper, Descartes, Kuhn and Weber
6 of 47
What is paragraph 1
Precise/Objective methodology
7 of 47
What is the main component of a science?
That it is having precise and objective methodology to test hypothesis and theories (Lawson, Graham and baker, 2007)
8 of 47
How does psychology do this?
Behaviourism for example lends itself to scientific methodology given its various theories, eg: Theories of learning and principles explaining behaviours e.g. law of effect presented by Thorndike (1898)
9 of 47
For example?
Watson and Rayner (1920) Little Albert experiment
10 of 47
How does cognitive psychology adopt scientific approach?
It relies heavily on using specialised objective equipment, eg: EEG (Also used in scientific research)
11 of 47
How does biological and developmental follow scientific methodology?
McDermott et al (2018) investigated veterans who suffered from PTSD, they demonstrated amygdala hyperactivity while viewing threatening faces, A MEG study
12 of 47
Psychology's experiment can follow objective procedures as shown in previous experiments, which would suggest it could be classified as a science
13 of 47
(Gareau, 1987) that society, its institutions and social relationships are not susceptible to scientific study, and that the methods of the natural sciences should not be applied to social phenomena
14 of 47
Second paragraph
15 of 47
What idea did Popper introduce?
The idea of falsification of theories as a science
16 of 47
What did he claim?
Scientists propose theories which they know provide an assumption and according to Popper, science is the refutation of theories in order to improve theories
17 of 47
What is the overall purpose?
To come to a theory that cannot be refuted
18 of 47
What did he state the aim of science was?
To eliminate the false and establish the true (Lacey 1999
19 of 47
What did Popper state?
The typical theory is the presentation of a highly probable statement which may not require refutation certainly
20 of 47
What is a good theory?
Highly improbably and will require certain refutation
21 of 47
What did Popper think as a good theory?
It consists of certain conjectures
22 of 47
In relation to Popper, what is there no mention of?
certainty in the proposition of theories, to a large extent, psychology can be considered as a science; theories are established but inevitably as technology developed more can be measured with certainty and hence mroe refuted
23 of 47
What would this lead to?
The more accurate theories can become
24 of 47
Therefore what was popper's aim?
That scientists go out of their way to make sure that their study is indestructible, they refute their study rather than confirm it
25 of 47
Shannon (1950) Binary logic, information can be quantified with certainty, this proves only to demonstrate that Popper's idea of natural progression of science through falsification to which psychology can confirm to and hence considered as a science
26 of 47
What is a contrasting paragraph?
27 of 47
What did Kuhn think about Popper's theory of falsification?
It was too simplistic and historically inaccurate, Kuhn suggested the theory of the paradigm shift
28 of 47
What is the theory of the Paradigm shift?
Scientific theories are proposed with confidence in their accuracy. Scientists took upon their theories as 'sacred' until their theory can't be justified
29 of 47
This theory is considered to be reductionist and a paradigm shift occurs, much like the shift from behaviourism to cognitive science, occurs when theory is proposed in which no anomoly can be found
30 of 47
What does the paradigm shift demonstrate?
Science as a constant working progress to which once again, psychology can conform to a large extent as explained previously in relation to Popper's view of science
31 of 47
What did Decartes propose?
Science as the development of objective theories of certainty which have been established on the basis of the justfication of laws
32 of 47
What did he claim?
Science must be undertaken via inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
33 of 47
What did Protagoras state (400BC)
No matter how highly probable an idea might be, no degree of probability is sufficient to substitute certainty
34 of 47
What stance does this take?
it still supports Descartes
35 of 47
How can this be applied to?
Psychology still may be established as a science as no theory is formally established without certainty.
36 of 47
Facts are not formed because of what?
They are not formed into general hypotheses without certainty
37 of 47
However, why can psychology be not considered as a science?
Because it can be seen as subjective until, as weber claimed, a law has been established.
38 of 47
Inevitably what?
There will always be a degree of uncertainty in theories which do not consist of laws. However, in this case, psychology may not be considered as a science to a very high degree
39 of 47
What is the fourth paragragh?
Feyerabeud considered both Kuhn and Popper's theories to be far too simplistic
40 of 47
He stated that science was what?
Not simply solving minor problems and that it is an objective manipulation of empirical date from which theories are important to our understanding
41 of 47
What is psychologies role?
The study of the mind is certainly considered to be one of the more important aspects of the world and understanding required
42 of 47
What did charles Darwin state?
The understanding and investigationg into mechanisms of human and animal behaviour may enable us to predict future changes
43 of 47
How was this concept further developed?
By Weber
44 of 47
WHat law did he invent?
The law of Just noticeable difference and claimed that though the investigation of human mechanisms, laws can be used and that behaviour can be predicted
45 of 47
Therefore, certain behaviours can be?
46 of 47
Therefore, what did he suggest science was?
Only one law is required for a subject to be required as a subject, psychology is already greatly established to be a science
47 of 47

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the first argument against psychology being a science?


It is not precise enough to be a science

Card 3


What is the second reason?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is this method said to be?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does sicence require?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Is psychology a science? resources »