Iran-Iraq war 1980-88

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  • Created by: katewells
  • Created on: 11-05-16 21:11
What were the 3 Iran-Iraq war territorial disputes?
The Shatt al-Arab waterway, Khuzestan and Algiers Agreement
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Where is the Shatt al-Arab waterway formed?
On the confluence between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
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What regions does the Shatt al-Arab waterway connect to the Persian gulf?
Basra (Iraq), Abadan and Khorramshahr (Iran)
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Why was the Shatt al-Arab waterway important to both Iran and Iraq?
For their oil exports
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Why is the Shatt al-Arab waterway especially important to Iraq?
It is its only outlet to the sea
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How long have arguments been happening over the Shatt al-Arab waterway?
Since the 16th century
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When was a treaty made over the Shatt al-Arab waterway?
1937
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Who was the Shatt al-Arab treaty in favour of?
Iraq
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What did the treaty do to the Shatt-al Arab waterway?
The boundary was marked by the low water on the eastern river bank of the river
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When was the Shatt al-Arab treaty rejected and by who and why?
1969 by the Shah who rejected the treaty and refused to pay any further shipping tolls to the Iraqi's
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What type of region is Khuzestan and where is it located?
Oil rich in South West Iran
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Who made up the majority of the Khuzestan population?
Non-Persians who were Arab with connections to their Iraqi neighbours
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What did Saddam claim to Khuzestan?
Historical right to control the province
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What did Saddam encourage Arabs that lived in Khuzestan do?
To revolt against the Shahs rule
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What did Iran do in retaliation to Saddam's response to Khuzestan?
Encouraged the Kurds in northern Iraq to take up arms against Saddam's regime and provided them with training bases and military equipment
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When was the Algiers Agreement?
1975
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Why did Saddam want to make the Algiers agreement?
He realised it was the only way to succeed in a war against Iran was to sign a temporary agreement
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What was the Algiers agreement?
For Iraq to drop its claim to Khuzestan and the boarder between Iran and Iraq along the Shatt al-Arab waterway should follow the deep waterline in return for Iran ending support to Kurdish rebels
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How did Saddam regard the Algiers agreement?
As a set back and was eager to regain lost ground ASAP
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When did Saddam renounce the Algiers agreement?
September 1980 shortly after invading Iran
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Why were Iran and Iraq the only serious contenders for the Gulf?
They had financial and military resources
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How did Saddam aim to expand Iraqi's oil reserve?
With the annexation of Khuzestan and renewing control of the Shatt al-Arab waterway
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What happened in 1979 that also caused Iraq to want to take lead role in the Arab world?
Egypt was expelled from the Arab league
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What was the Arab league?
A 1945 establishment to promote the political, economic and cultural interests of Arab countries
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Who was more powerful in 1975?
Iran
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What changed to balance of power to Iraq in 1979?
The Iranian revolution
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What happened after the Shah was overthrown?
Iran lost USA as an ally meaning the army was deprived of supplied spare parts for its tanks, armored vehicles and artillery
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Who was purged as a result of the Iranian revolution?
Senior ranked officers
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Why was Saddam keen to invade Iran after the revolution?
Because he thought they were weak and did not want to allow them to recover
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How was Saddam's perceptions on the state of Iran wrong?
They were not as weak as what they appeared to be
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How was Iran run under Khomeini?
Shiite Muslim state governed by Musilm law
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How war Iraq run under Saddam?
A secular state were most politicians were Sunni Muslims
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Why did Khomeini oppose Saddam?
Religious reasons and he had been expelled from Iraq in 1977
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What did Khomeini do from June 1979?
Appeal to Iraq Shiites to overthrow the Baath regime and establish an Islamic republic
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When did anti-Baath riots break out in Shiite areas of Iraq?
1979-1980
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What did militants do?
Plot an assassination against lead Baath officials
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How did Saddam react to the attempts to undermine his government?
He was not pleased
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What was the main aim of the West?
To keep balance of power in the Middle East and to ensure an uninterrupted oil supply
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Who did USA prefer out of Iran and Iraq and what did they do in order to help?
Iraq, and supplied weapons, intelligence and finance
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What other 3 regions supplies Iraq with military equipment?
Britain, France and West Germany
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What did USA send to the Gulf and why?
Warships to guarantee oil supplied and gage in attacks on Iranian oil installation and gunboats
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How did the Iran-Iraq war end?
In a stalemate, there was no clear winner
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Was there a change in the boarder due to the Iran-Iraq war?
No
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What was restored at the end of the war?
Pre-war status quo
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Why did neither side achieve their aims?
Saddam and Khomeini remained in power
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What was the death toll for Iran?
1 million out of 50 million
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What was the death toll for Iraq?
1/4 - 1/2 million out of 17 million
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Who incurred a smaller foreign debt?
Iran
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What did Iran's oil reserve value decrease to?
Halved to $10 billion
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What was an immediate impact of the war on the people?
Standards of living dropped
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How much did Iraq owe in foreign aid?
$80 billion
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What had Iraq's oil revenue half to?
$1.1 billion
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What had to be halted to make way for hardships?
Social projects such as housing, schools and hospitals
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Why did Saddam claim victory for Iraq?
He had halted to spread of the Islamic revolution and prevented Khomeini from taking over
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is the Shatt al-Arab waterway formed?

Back

On the confluence between Tigris and Euphrates rivers

Card 3

Front

What regions does the Shatt al-Arab waterway connect to the Persian gulf?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was the Shatt al-Arab waterway important to both Iran and Iraq?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is the Shatt al-Arab waterway especially important to Iraq?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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