Ionic Compounds and Insoluble Salts

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1. Name all of the insoluble substances (including exceptions)

  • nitrates, sulfates and salts
  • sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonates and hydroxides
  • Silver and lead chlorides, lead, barium and calcium sulfates and carbonates and hydroxides
  • chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium
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2. What is the test for sulfates?

  • Add dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride to the solution. If a white precipitate of barium sulfate forms, the original was a sulfate.
  • Add citric acid and lead chloride solution and if it changes colour from clear to red it was a sulfate.
  • Add dilute nitric acid followed by silver nitrate solution and if a white precipitate emerges, it was a sulfate originally.
  • Add chlorine and water and if it begans to smoke and fizz it was a sulfate.

3. What colours do calcium and copper metals create during a flame test?

  • calcium = orange and copper = pruple
  • calcium = red and copper = blue/green
  • calcium = purple and copper = red
  • calcium = blue/green and copper = red

4. What is the test for carbonates?

  • Bubble a gas through lime water and if carbon dioxide is present it will turn milky.
  • Add hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution to the carbonate.
  • Use a lighted splint to create a squeaky pop in a test tube if the hydrogen is present
  • Use a smouldering splint and see if it relights in the test tube if oxygen is present

5. What is spectroscopy and why is it used?

  • This is the correct term for a flame test and they are used to find out what element/elements a substance contains.
  • It is a test where the patterns of light emitted by the elements in a heated sample are analysed. It is fast and reliable and can be used to detect very small amounts of element in a sample.
  • It is when a sample of an element is placed under an ultra magnifying lense and tiny tiny amounts of the element can be seen. It is very accurate.
  • It is when a gaenocologists takes a look at the nether regions of a woman's parts and tries to work out what elements may be stuck in there.

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