Investigating Human Cognition

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What are the elements of a functional/ computational account (5)?
Representations of information, processes that translate between/ transform representations, organisation of components, control mechanisms that enable/ disable organisations, vague theories.
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What is the process of lexical access in reading?
Identify letters and represent their sequence ---> Identify words and retrieve ---> Syntactic class/ word meaning.
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What is the process of extra-linguistic context and knowledge?
(Syntactic class) Interpret sentence structure ---> (Word meaning) Interpret sentence meaning
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What are artificial lab tasks?
Designed to exercise and capture a component process, typically stimulus/ response tasks, allows accuracy/ reaction time to be measured.
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What is the word superiority effect?
When accuracy of letter identification is greater in the context of a word than a matched non-word.
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What are frequency effects?
When RTs for lexical decisions, categorization and naming are shorter for words that are more frequent in a language.
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What are sentence context effects?
When RTs for lexical decision and naming are shorter when a word is presented in a sentence context of which it is a plausible continuation.
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What are continuous, natural performance tasks?
Use eye fixation data, provide a relatively natural online method for investigating critical psycho-linguistic methods.
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What is fixation duration in natural reading influenced by (2)?
Frequency effects, context effects.
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What methods can be used to investigate a cognitive skill (3)?
Introspective reports, observation and manipulation of behaviour, measurement and manipulation of brain activity.
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What is the serial search model?
When a spelling pattern is compared to each word-form stored in the mental dictionary to identify meaning/ pronounciation.
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How is the serial search model made more efficient?
The search is in order of frequency in the language, hence a match will be found faster for a more frequent word.
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What is the modified serial model?
When a person's mental dictionary of word-forms is divided into bins, and the spelling pattern is categorised into one of these bins then a serial search is carried out within that bin.
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What does processing at word level facilitate?
Identification of constituent letters.
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What does processing of sentence context facilitate?
Word identification.
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Why does Forster argue that word recognition is autonomous?
There can't be "sentence units", can't generalise all plausible sentence continuations fast enough.
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How can neuro-psychologists measure the effect of the brain on cognitive processes?
By using the performance of brain-damaged patients or non-invasive measures.
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How does the homophone effect affect low frequency words?
Low frequency words produce more of a homophone effect than high frequency words.
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What conditions cause phonological mediation to contribute to semantic decision?
If there is not strong orthography/ semantic link.
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What is surface dyslexia?
Average reading of regular and non-words, impaired reading of exception words, tendency to regularise.
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What is phonological dyslexia?
Average reading of higher frequency words (both regular and exception words), impaired reading of non-words/ unfamiliar words.
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What is deep dyslexia?
Impaired access to pronunciation for all words and semantic approximations.
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Card 2

Front

What is the process of lexical access in reading?

Back

Identify letters and represent their sequence ---> Identify words and retrieve ---> Syntactic class/ word meaning.

Card 3

Front

What is the process of extra-linguistic context and knowledge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are artificial lab tasks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the word superiority effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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