Investigating society keywords

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  • Created by: Thajrin
  • Created on: 22-12-17 18:57
Primary data
Information that researchers have gathered themselves
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Secondary data
Information that has been collected by somebody else and then used by the researcher
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Self-completion questionnaires
Respondents complete the questionnaire themselves and then return it to the researcher
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Interviewer questionnaires
Questions are read out to the respondent by the researcher, who records the respondent answers
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Closed questions
Respondents are presented with either a list of options or a two-way survey choice and have to select a response with which they most agree
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Open questions
Respondents are free to answer the question in any way that they like; there are no preset options
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Trends
Patterns of behaviour or attitudes seen in evidence
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Standardised questions
All respondents are asked the same questions in the same order, allowing for comparisons to be made
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Low response rate
Not everyone that you want to participate in your research may do so, meaning that your respondents many no longer be typical of the popular under study
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Statistics
Data presented in a numerical form as a percentage
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Quantitate data
Numerical data, often presented as statistics
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Qualitative data
In-depth data usually presented in written form
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Structured interview
A set of standardised preset questions is read out to the respondent by the researcher
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Unstructured interview
A very flexible interview, more like a conversation. Instead of a list of questions to answer, the researcher is more likely just to have general topics or ideas to discuss
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Semi-structured interview
Somewhere in-between a structured and an unstructured interview meaning that the researcher can have preset questions, but also has the flexibility to follow up on interesting answers given by the respondent
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Focus group
Several respondents are interviewed at once and are allowed to discuss the questions being asked of them
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Research population
The group(s) of people relevant to the study being completed
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Interviewer bias
Where the interviewer influences the answers that the respondent gives
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Social desirability
Where the respondent gives the kind of answer that they think the researcher wants to hear
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Non-participitant observation
Where a researcher watched a group without getting involved in what they are doing
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Participant observation
Where a researcher joins the group being studied and acts as they do whilst completing the observation
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Covert observation
Where the researcher does not let the group being studied know that they are being observed
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Overt observation
Where the researcher tells the group under study that they are being observed or does not attempt to hide their presence from them
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Objectivity
Studying topics and people with an open mind and not allowing your own views and opinions to influence the findings
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Observer effect
When the presence of a observer affects the actions of the group under study, preventing the observer from seeing natural behaviour
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Ethics
Ideas about what is morally right and wrong
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Operationalise
To define exactly what is meant by any terms used for categorisation
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Bias
The subject is presented in a one-sided way which favours one point of view more than others
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Research device
The research method that you will use for your investigation, such as a questionnaire or interview questions
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Cross-sectional
If a sample is cross-sectional, the it will be made up of a range of different people to best represent the research population
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Generalisation
Results from a study can be applied to the whole of the research population
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Sample
A small group of people, usually cross-sectional, on who, research will be carried out
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Sampling frame
The source from which a sample is drawn
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Feminist
Someone who thinks that women are disadvantaged in society and wants to make them equal with men
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Representative
When the date cane said to accurately represent the research population in terms of, for example, gender and age compostion
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Random sample
The sample group is chosen completely at random
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Stratified sample
The research population is divided up into relevant groups, such as gender and age, and a random sample is then taken from each of these groups to generate more representative data
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Systematic sample
Selecting every nth name from the sampling frame, therefore not random at all
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Snowball sample
Another non0random sample where a researcher makes contact with one relevant respondents and then asks them to put them into contact with further respondents. Often used when studying a topic with no sampling frame, for example, gang members
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Triangulation
Using more than one research method or researcher in order to complete the investigation
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Pilot study
A small-scale study completed before a piece of research to identify any possible problems
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Case study
A detailed and in-depth study of one particular group or situation
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Longitudinal study
A study completed over a long period of time
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Longitudinal study
A study completed over a long period of time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Information that has been collected by somebody else and then used by the researcher

Back

Secondary data

Card 3

Front

Respondents complete the questionnaire themselves and then return it to the researcher

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Questions are read out to the respondent by the researcher, who records the respondent answers

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Respondents are presented with either a list of options or a two-way survey choice and have to select a response with which they most agree

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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