Introduction to Sociology

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 14-09-14 12:34
What does the term Consensus theory mean?
Consensus theories believe society is based on value consensus so everyone follows the same norms and values and is well integrated into this society eg funcionalist theories,
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What does the term conflict theory mean?
Conflict theories believe society is based on conflict created by Karl Marx and believes everyone has their own goals in society and sees people in competition with one another for valued resources and goodseg marxism and feminism,
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Which type of theory is Marxism?
A conflict theory
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Describe how Marxists see society and the conflict?
Marxists believe there is conflict between two groups-the Ruling Class-Bourgeoisie- and the Working Class- Proletariat- when the Working Class want higher wages and more benefits and the Ruling Class want to maximise profit
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How do Marxists believe they can stop this conflict?
When the Working Class Unite together and overthrow the Ruling Class through a revolution,
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What is the term for the Ruling Class?
Bourgeoisie
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What is the term for the Working Class?
Proletariat
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What system do they believe society uses and how does this oppress the classes?
THey believe society uses a system called Capitalism which is an economic sysgtem where only a small minoritt of society own the forces of production- we are driven by profits to keep the poor poor and the rich rich,
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Why do Marxists believe that the Working class are 'expolited'?
As the Capitalist economic system in the means of production are owned by the Bourgeoisie and the proletariat depend on them for employment-The workers produce surplus value(more product than necessary) products but dont get the full value,
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What does the term dominant ideology mean in terms of the ruling class?
Dominant ideology is used by the ruling class to convince the working class that we need loads of stuff to buy from their industries
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Describe false class consciousness.
When the working class accept their inequality in society and therefore accept their social position,
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What type of theory is functionalism?
A consensus theory
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How do functionalists see society?
Functionalists see society In a rose-tinted and positive way. They see society as a system of inter-related parts workig together to meet the need of society,
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Describe the term organic analogy in terms of funcitonalists.
A term used by Emile Durkheim to describe how funcitonalists see society as a human body-Each sub-system funcitons to maintain a healthy society-They see the family in the heart- however if one part becomes dysfunctional, other parts are affected,
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What does the term functional prerequistes mean in functionalism?
Functional prerequistes is the basic need or requirements that must be met for society to survive,
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What do functionalists believe maintains order?
Order and stablity is maintained in social institutions like family, education which maintains the social system. Value consensus keeps everyoen following the same norms and vaues,
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What does the term social solidarity by funcitionalists mean?
A term used by Durkheim to show a sense of belonging, commiment and loyalty to a social group. An example is a sports team all wearing the same outfits and colours,
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What type of theory is feminism?
A conflict theory
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How do feminists see society?
They believe they live in a patriarchal society so male dominated leading to women being in a subordinate position to men,
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What are the beliefs of liberal feminists?
They are concerned with inequality in opportunities for women,
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What type of feminists criticise other types of feminists and argue that the role women play in society is down to their own choice rather than patriarcy?
Post-modern feminists
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What are the beliefs of radical feminists?
THey argue men oppress and control women and reduce them to sexual objects, seen most clearly in the 'sex industry'
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What type of feminists believe women are oppressed through unequal class and gender system?
Marxist feminists
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What in terms of feminism does 'gender socialisation' mean?
It is the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with your sex,
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What type of theory is the New Right?
A political theory/philosophy
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Which political party is the New Right Theory generally associated with and who has it influenced?
The conservative Party and people like Margaret Thatcher and Tory's Government,
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How does the New Right view society and what era would they like to return to?
They are quite pessimistic about modern society and want to return to the 'golden age' and emphasize the importance of traditional views,
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What do the New Right encourage for people?-Who should have little interference?
Individuial freedom where freedom of choice is encouraged in society like how to spend money- The state should have little interference.
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If the New Right encourage freedom of choice, what do the New Right disagree with and why?
Our welfare system/ benefit system as it creates a culture of dependency so creates more poverty and more unemployment,
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How did Marsland in 1989, a supporter of the New Right, describe the benefit system?
They call benefits 'Handouts' from the 'Nanny' welfare state have made people dependent and no longer responsible for themselves,
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The New right believe the welfare system created a new class of people called what? How are these people marked out?
The Underclass. They are marked out by: -lone parenthood, promiscuity (****), family instability (fights-people leaving), -Drunkeness and 'yob' culture-spitting, swearing, -Crime and fiddling of the benefit system, -Work-shy attitudes -Education fail
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What do changes do post-modernists believe have occured in our society? -From what to what?
They believe contemporary western societies have moved from modern to post modern,
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How do post-modernists feel about the traditional sociological theories eg marxism in this new society?
THey feel they are no longer relevant to our society and are no longer applicable and we need new ways of looking at our society,
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What years would modernity be?
18th Century to 1970s
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WHat four keys words can be used to describe the lives of people living in modernity and how they are relevant?
-Predictable-Things didn't change, -Structured-Lives were mapped out, -Clear Identity-Gender roles, social class, -Firm beliefs-Nationhood, science holds truth,
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How do post-modernists view a post-modern society?
A fragmented, media saturated global village characterised by freedom of choice and consumerism,
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What do culture do they believe has occured due to globalisation in our post-modern society?
A pick and mix culture where there are lots of relgions and beliefs in the world and due to globaliation, people can experience all and pick and choose bits they like to create their own personalised spirituality,
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What is the role of mass media in the post-modern society?
They and ICT have become most important and traditional social institutions like relgion family, have become less,
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What is another name for Social Action Theory?
Interactionism,
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WHat theory does social action theory disagree with and how?
It disagrees with Marxism that behaviour is shaped by external forces but believe society is the product of people interacting in social groups and trying to make sense of behaviour,
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What do they think socialisation involves?
They believe socialisation involves learning shared interpretations and meanings which influences our culture, identity and the 'self'.
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What is labelling and how does it affect individuals?
The qualities or identities conferred on a person or social group through the expressed opinions of others. It has a poweful affect on sel-esteem and status,
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Card 2

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What does the term conflict theory mean?

Back

Conflict theories believe society is based on conflict created by Karl Marx and believes everyone has their own goals in society and sees people in competition with one another for valued resources and goodseg marxism and feminism,

Card 3

Front

Which type of theory is Marxism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how Marxists see society and the conflict?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do Marxists believe they can stop this conflict?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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