Introduction to organic chemistry

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 12-04-14 13:07
What does organic chemistry affect in our lives and why?
Clothes, food, cosmetics and medicine because they all have a common factor of carbon, on which they're based.
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What do all organic compounds contain?
Carbon.
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What are the simplest organic compounds, and what do they contain?
Hydrocarbons, which contain only carbon and hydrogen.
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Where do our useable supplies of hydrocarbons come from?
Fossil fuels.
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How many known carbon compounds are there?
10 million.
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How many carbon compounds are discovered each year and why?
300 000, because a carbon atom can form bonds with other carbons to make chains and rings; it can form a single, double or triple bond to another carbon, and it can bond with other elements.
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Define aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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Define alicyclic hydrocarbons.
Carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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What group of the Periodic Table is carbon in?
4.
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How many electrons does carbon have in it's outer shell, and what does this mean it does with other atoms?
4, so they pair up with electrons from other atoms to form covalent bonds.
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Draw a methane and an ethene molecule.
Methane- 1 carbon with 4 hydrogens. Ethene- 2 carbons with a double bond and 2 hydrogens on each carbon.
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Define and give an example of a saturated hydrocarbon.
A hydrocarbon with only single bonds, for example propane.
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Define and give and example of an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
A hydrocarbon which has carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds, for example ethene.
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Define functional group.
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.
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Where is a functional group attached to?
Some point on the carbon backbone of the organic molecule.
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How much chemical reactivity does a saturated carbon have?
Very little.
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How do molecules with the same functional group react?
In a similar way.
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Define homologous series.
Organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH₂.
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Define alkanes.
The homologous series with the general formula CnH₂n+₂. They are saturated, straight-chained hydrocarbons. Each carbon is bonded to 4 other atoms, and each have a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5.
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Name and draw the first 4 compounds in the alkane homologous series.
Methane-1 carbon with 4 hydrogens. Ethane-2 carbons bonded each with 3 hydrogens. Propane-3 carbons bonded, the end 2 with 3 hydrogens, the middle 1 with 2 hydrogens. Butane-4 carbons bonded, the end 2 with 3 hydrogens, the middle 2 with 2 hydrogens.
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Name the 1st 10 compounds in the alkane homologous series, how many carbons they have and their formula.
Methane, 1, CH₄. Ethane, 2, C₂H₆. Propane, 3, C₃H₈. Butane, 4, C₄H₁₀. Pentane, 5, C₅H₁₂. Hexane, 6, C₆H₁₄. Heptane, 7, C₇H₁₆. Octane, 8, C₈H₁₈. Nonane, 9, C₉H₂₀. Decane, 10, C₁₀H₂₂.
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Is the length of the carbon chain important or unimportant?
Relatively unimportant.
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Name 4 functional groups.
C-C bonds, C=C bonds, carbon atoms joined to halogens, -OH groups.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do all organic compounds contain?

Back

Carbon.

Card 3

Front

What are the simplest organic compounds, and what do they contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do our useable supplies of hydrocarbons come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many known carbon compounds are there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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